Research paper on narcissistic personality disorder

This research newspaper will explore a particular personality disorder called narcissistic. Out of this research, the audience will learn this is, causes, types and levels as well treatment from a research and Christian point of view. Also, this paper will discover the issues behind diagnosing narcissistic personality and reason some wish to exclude Narcissistic from the personality disorder group.

Definition of Narcissistic

Hey! Look at me! I am much better than you. I accomplish 2 levels in four years. I benefit a top notch company. I only associated with those on my level that you not. You are beneath me and I will not waste materials my time talking to someone as if you. The statements listed above are examples of a person with Narcissistic personality disorder. The goal of this paper is to discuss the general description and treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). This research newspaper will get started will the definition then leading in to the record of narcissism. Also, included would be the criteria that one will need to meet to become identified as having this mental disease. Before defining narcissistic, we will specify personality disorder which "is an enduring patter of inner experience and patterns that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individuals culture, is pervasive and inflexible, comes with an starting point in adolescence or early adulthood, is secure over time, and leads to distress or impairment" (DSM, 2000, pg. 685 DSM). People's thoughts, feelings, and our frame of mind toward things are all part in our personality. A lot of people with a wholesome personality trait are easily able to get along with their peers or the people around them. There are ten personality disorders recognized by the DSM, which newspaper will discuss narcissistic personality disorder. People often mistake narcissistic as being filled with one's do it yourself, but it has a more complex part. After getting backdrop of NPD, we will explore will there be a spiritual or Christian alternate for treatment or should it be combined with psychology to supply the optimal results?

Development of Narcissistic

A narcissistic person believes the world revolves around them. They are inconsiderate people who are not kind or nice. Others expression for narcissism are selfish, conceited, or snobbish person. The word narcissism was utilized by Kohut, Kernberg, and Sigmund Freud. There is a Greek myth about a man Narcissus. He was very self-absorbed and fell in love with himself. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) bases itself on the personality characteristic of narcissism. Individuals who suffer from this mental disorder require admiration and exaggerated sense with their importance. A narcissistic person recognizes everybody else as poor or second compared to themselves (Dimaggio & et al. , 2008). They require constant attention and much recognition of their achievements and expertise; even though individuals who have NPD appear to be egotistic, they don't handle criticism perfectly. They are incredibly vunerable to it and respond to it with viciousness and humiliation.

People tend to become alcohol and substance abuse, violent, and hypochondriasis. They do not care and attention what they do, as long as these are reaping the benefits. They don't connect their activities with repercussions. They assume that they can do whatever they want and no one can inform them otherwise. This fact may provide as a motivation to commit criminal offenses. If the law says a person cannot do something, the narcissist is convinced it generally does not apply to him/her. Problems will appear when narcissistic features become exaggerated within an individual's personality. During the infant stage, moms are infatuated with their baby. The infant will get narcissistic tendencies when it is merely about them and no person else. The newborn is the center of attention for the mom as well as all of those other family making the kid feel powerful and almighty. The child will have a major ego, but once the infant cross in to the toddler stages, the guts of attention changes leading to the kid to feel segregated from all the love and attention. With this ego the kid will develop narcissistic developments. The parent should provide limitations and results to the child's activities and don't baby him or her all the time. For Freud, they are the oral and anal stages of life when personality problems can develop (Corey, 2009, pg. 67).

A structure of excessive dependence on admiration and insufficient empathy are characteristics of NPD that starts to in young adulthood. Those experiencing NPD cannot develop healthy associations that would permit them to depend on others, trust others, or truly love someone. Narcissistic people can only formed relationships with the ones that can put them up on a pedestal and improve their beauty/achievements. Their trend is to create friendships or affectionate romantic relationships with only those that can enhance their self-esteem or progress their purposes. The target is to impress others with the knowledge, beauty, or prosperous. They become boastful about themselves. Most narcissists are liars. They lay about their lives and frequently unreliable. They expect special treatment, to obtain their way, and be the guts of attention. A narcissistic person will mock someone who holds some type of power. They would like to have the same degree of admiration if not more than the person in control. They had no idea what a healthy sense of home is basically because their sense personal is depend after other's compliment, attention, and compliments. A narcissistic personal injury occurs when someone defeats or criticizes the narcissistic individual (Miller, 1992). It might not portray on the face at the time of the injury, nonetheless they dislike criticism and defeat. They begin to feel outrage, embarrassment, and humiliation. The narcissistic person will try to get back at a person that injuries them.

Causes of Narcissism

Definite causes behind narcissism have yet been uncovered. Some triggers from research have been genetics, self-reflection, and ethnical factors (Simopoulos, 1988). Also, data have concluded that "children who do not go through the chance to differentiate, and the ones who lack the chance to idealize others while also taking pride in themselves, may later suffer from narcissistic" (Corey, pg. 83). Children have to be able to identification with other children their age. They should know who to feel empathy for a kid that has less alternatively than assess and think they have it better. This will likely teach identity and help them be grateful and thankful for what they do have. The Mayo Medical center has suggested sociable and emotional factors. Cultural factors include how one would interact with family and good friend at an early age. Do they imagine they may be better, richer, rather, or smarter than others? Psychological factors are the development of a person disposition and how one deal with stress. There is no solitary cause for NPD. There are a group of factors that can donate to narcissistic personality disorder.

Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (2000) states a pervasive patter of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy, starting by early on adulthood and within a variety of contexts, as suggested by five (or even more) of the following:

Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e. g. , exaggerates accomplishments and talents, needs to be recognized as superior without commensurate successes)

Is preoccupied with fantasies of endless success, electricity, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love

Believes that he / she is "special" and unique and can only just be grasped by, or should connect with, other special or high status people (or companies)

Requires high admiration

Has a feeling of entitlement, i. e. , unreasonable goals of especially favorable treatment or automated compliance with his or her expectations

Is interpersonally exploitative, i. e. , needs advantage of others to accomplish his or her own ends

Lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others

Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her

Shows arrogant, haughty habits or attitudes

Other personality disorder can be mixed up with NPD. The personality disorders have certain similarities. Histrionic, Antisocial, and Borderline Personality Disorders are frosty, superficial, and indifferent toward others (DSM-IV, 2000). When diagnosing one must consider all of the personality disorder and pass the conditions measured in the DSM to provide an appropriate diagnose.

View of Narcissism

Heinz Kohut assumed that narcissism was normal development from delivery to adult. Kohut suggest that everyone has been guilty to be selfish, conceited, and caught up up at some point of amount of time in their life. When a healthy normal person, can transform his or her baby narcissism into adult narcissism. "Transmuting internalization" is a term he used to spell it out the process in which an infant transforming into an adult would encounter various challenges ensuing into some aggravation. Having maximum frustrations leads the individual to develop a strong internal framework or a solid sense of one's self. This can be used to pay for having less external structure or support from others, thus if the narcissist process of transmuting is obstructed. Due to a level of irritation that exceeds the optimal frustration, where the person experiences. She or he will be trapped in the infantile level, exhibiting many characteristics of omnipotent and invulnerable child.

Otto Kernberg's views of narcissism derive from Mahler's theory of parting. Consisting of an individual process of parting, from infancy to early on childhood. The developing child gains a well balanced self-concept by mastering two major phases, normal autism and symbiosis, along with four other sub phases: differentiation, exercising, rapprochement, and consolidation of separation-individuation. Kernberg argues that an individual struggles to successfully excel at the rapprochement sub period and becomes set as of this level. At era 10 to 14 weeks commences the development level, in which the child discovers to walk. This capacity, gives a whole new perspective for the kid thus giving a sense of grandiosity and omnipotence, which resembles a narcissist patterns. At era 14 to two years the child gets into in the rapprochement sub period finding that she or he has boundaries of what he or she can do. If the child is greatly frustrated they modify by refusing or as a result time for the doing sub phase. This may be his or her security omnipotence and invulnerability.


Many narcissists do not consider they are psychologically sick. Many people do not seek help for narcissism. They come to treatment for a different mental disorder. It is unlikely that a person can be cured from narcissism, but their way of thinking about themselves can be modify. The counselor may become a reflection for your client. This would permit the customer to see their thought process, activities, deeds, and misuse of love from others. The client can confront their excellent ego by making use of the counselor. The perfect treatment is to talk to the client about their self-perception. The counselor can do it again to your client their narcissistic views. The client can copy their narcissism to the counselor by recalling occurrences that harmed them. Once the counselor uncovers the injuries, they can explore what happen and the complexities behind their behaviors. Also, the counselor makes it possible for the client to keep their narcissistic way of thinking in session. Then after the therapeutic romantic relationship has been established, the counselor can refute and provide explanations because of their need of admiration.

Therapy Types

Psychoanalytic therapy comes from Sigmund Freud. Psychoanalytic theory view of human being dynamics is determinism. The narcissistic person should want to determine what has caused them to have an egotistical personality. Clients don't realize the conditions that cause their conduct and feelings. With the help of the counselor, clients can change the unconscious into awareness. The framework of personality view comprises of three set ups which will be the id, the ego, and the superego. This theory also talks about the ego body's defence mechanism that are extremely important. Everyone uses these mechanisms somewhat in their lives to ease stress. The defense mechanisms are: repression, denial, reaction development, projection, displacement, rationalization, sublimation, regression, introjections, recognition, and settlement (Corey, 2009, 67).

The goals of this theory are to make the unconscious mindful and strengthen the ego. The counselor function is to help the client gain the freedom to live, to assist clients in reaching self-awareness, credibility and effective personal connections. In addition they help the client deal with nervousness and gain control over impulsive and irrational action. Your client does the majority of the task in this remedy and it is long-term treatment.

Family systems therapy is "represented by a number of theories and strategies, all of which focus on the relational areas of real human problems" (Cory, 2009, p. 458). People seek each other's attention, agreement, and support and react to each other's needs, goals, and distress. This may affect how individuals manage their connections, once and for all or bad, symbolizes a continuance of habits developed in early family life. Bowen hypothesized that "within individuals, anxiety about parting and damage, or too much togetherness and strength, was managed in predictable ways: by discord, by version and reciprocal performing, by triangling, and by cut-off" (p. 238). Market leaders in population who give orders and don't allow individuals to be personal responsibility will be participating in handicapping the individual to remain dependent. The category of the narcissistic person can help get rid of their distorted image of themselves. The patterns needed to be learned or complete down from someone else, so that it would be helpful it the client got a support system to him or her identify a wholesome sense of self applied.

NPD in the DSM-V

Should Narcissistic Personality Disorder be included on the DSM-V? It seems like narcissistic personality is just a big headed person wanting to become more self-absorbed. In my opinion, the research workers have valid tips about not including NPD on the DSM-V. It is rarely diagnosed with prevalence only 2% (Campbell, Miller, Widiger, 2010). There is not enough research done on Narcissistic personality disorder. According to Ronningstan (2011), the propose for the DSM 5 will four components that are four basic diagnostic requirements for personality disorder; five degrees of self and social personality functioning, five major personality disorder types and 37 personality traits facets sorted out under six personality trait domains (pg. 251). Analysts have claim that there's a need to cover different narcissim variations (Campbell, Miller, Widiger, 2010, pg. 643).

Test Use

The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used way of measuring narcissism in social mental research. Although several variants of the NPI have been suggested in the books, a forty-item forced-choice version (Raskin & Terry, 1988) is the one most commonly used in current research. The NPI is dependant on the DSM-III clinical conditions for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), although it was made to measure these features in the general inhabitants. Thus, the NPI is often thought to measure "normal" or "subclinical" (borderline) narcissism (i. e. , in people who score very high on the NPI do not necessarily meet requirements for medical diagnosis with NPD).

Biblical Perspective

Christian counseling depends on, and fully desires, the Holy Heart to intervene and cause supernatural change in the life span of your client (Clinton & Ohlschalger). Consumer must have stength to love and serve God. Clinton & Ohlschalger develop the TRUTH process to make use of during treatment T means a lead to event. This could represent something has happen to your client as a child that brought on a narcissistic personality. R means reckless thinking. The client's thinking is wrong. One should not think of themselves as better than other people or big-headed. U means unhealthy response. How the consumer treat their relationships or how they come off towards their family ruins their romantic relationship. T means truthful thinking. Biblical thinking should change the narcissistic person belief of themselves. If indeed they replace their pondering with thoughts of God, they will become less conceited. H stands for healthy response. A person can respond in a different way about their accomplishments and accomplishments. They would not flaunt it or over exaggerate about themselves. Instead they would be considerate of other thoughts and take constructive criticism. This technique would replace the boastful way the narcissistic person feels. Truth therapy will allow the individual see their true identification just how God made them. God makes not blunders about the development of his people.

In bible there are scriptures about people that are boastful. Capps (2009) believes God possessed NPD. His reason being God experienced a need for admiration and lack of empathy which is noticeable in the first several chapters of Genesis (pg. 199). He believes God was selfish to make man in his own image (Gen. 1:26-27). God appeared out and noticed that the things he made were great. His motives were not to be boastful, but to acknowledge his great work for mankind. Relating to KJV, Adam 4:16 states however now you boast in your arrogance. All such boasting is bad. Also there is certainly Jeremiah 9:23, Ephesians 2:8-9 and Psalms 94:4. Capps (2009) idea is God was revealing by healing the unwell and nurturing the deceased. God will not like boastful people. God preach the gospel as well as allow his actions to speak for themselves. People shouldn't inform others what they can do but allow others to see their work. Rather than being stuck on self, you need to be caught on being truly a servant for God. God is not concern with the outside appearance but with the center and whether his will has been done. Philippians 2:3 states let nothing be achieved through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of brain let each esteem other much better than themselves (KJV). Narcissism should not have a location in a Christian's life.

For those who find themselves embracing Christ to help provide therapeutic and answers, should repent and commit their lives to Christ. They shouldn't worry about material things or achievements. Blessed will be the meek; for they shall inherit the planet earth (Matthew 5: 5, KJV). God will encourage those that are humble and submissive to his phrase. Humility does not envy what others has, but rejoice with others when they received their blessings. Narcissist looks for to please only himself, whereas a meek man seeks to please others. Narcissism is adding one's need most of all including God. The desire of the devil is to get God's children out of his will and in to the sinful world. Narcissism is sinful thinking. Wayne makes this aspect in James 4:8, get nigh to God, and he will draw nigh to you. Cleanse your hands, ye sinners; and purify your hearts, ye twice minded. Our company is called two times minded because our mind is not on God but on worldly property. Once the narcissist has cleansed their head, the Holy Nature can dwell with him. The Holy Heart can provide clear and uncorrupted thoughts focused on Godly means of living alternatively than laying and being boastful about one's do it yourself. One experiencing narcissistic should know even though their brain is on vain things, God won't leave you nor forsake you. An individual can always count on Jesus no matter the problem or circumstances. This should cause one to rejoice!


Narcissistic is a difficult disorder to diagnose and discover proper research. There will vary methods to treat narcissism. It is determined by the severity which the individual has narcissistic personality disorder. In reality, even although person seems large head, he/she is absolutely harming inside because they don't know how to have an effective relationship. The mental disorder has hindered their personality developmental and deprives them with their normal personality. People experiencing Narcissistic Personality Disorder usually overemphasize their abilities and boost their accomplishments. They seem boastful and pretentious underestimating and devaluing the achievements and fulfillment of others. Narcissists sometimes fraudulently state to have certification or experiences, which they don't possess. Narcissistic people have self-esteem issues. The necessity for continuous attention, admiration, matches, along with superior entitlement, and planning on others to defer to them help their delicate self-esteem. Narcissist lack of awareness has difficulty in spotting the needs and feelings of others. To summarize the narcissist is oblivious to the hurtfulness of these remarks or action, arrogant, disdainful and patronizing frame of mind, showing envy, psychological coldness and lack of interest and is also quick at fault and criticize others when their needs and objectives are not satisfied. In today's culture Narcissism is all over. From enough time we awake to the time we drift off. The kids of today are more self-centered then generations earlier. Could the parents be spoiling them too much? Thus by giving them, everything they want, without some level of frustrations, may lead to narcissistic habit. Eventually narcissism may be a part of everyday life and not certainly be a disorder in the years to come.

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