Healthy People 2010, created by the U. S. Division of Health and Human Services, set goals to boost health behaviours and improve the healthy populace by the entire year 2010. One of those goals is increasing in charge sexual health habit. Responsible erotic health actions include regular condom use, abstinence, and every other methods used to the pass on of sexually sent infections and prevent unintended pregnancies. Adolescent pregnancies cost the American taxpayers from $7 billion to $15 billion per season, and sexually sent attacks cost around $17 billion annually; also, the price of treating just one person with HIV contamination is around $155, 000. It is straightforward to understand why Healthy People 2010 centered on this goal to be one of the numerous to work toward. The goal is to increase the percentage of children who abstain from sexual activity or use condoms while they are simply sexually energetic (U. S. Department of Health insurance and Human being Services, 2000). While acknowledging that the challenge of irresponsible sexual behavior prevails and setting an objective is a start, the overall population must know very well what they can do to make healthy patterns changes. The first part in realizing that a change must arise happens when one realizes new facts, ideas, or information that leads them to understand that previous behaviors were unsafe.
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) outlines the periods of change that are helpful in transitioning from the bad patterns to the healthy one; these periods of change include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination (Prochaska, Redding, & Evers, 2008). This paper will discuss how utilizing the TTM allows the populace to make healthy intimate behavior changes. It will look specifically at children that are of senior high school get older. The TTM is specially good adolescent populace because many of the constructs involve public support, which is vital in the teenage human population, as well as self-efficacy, which teens are really learning at this time in their lives.
The TTM areas that the first level of change is precontemplation. On this stage, the average person has no goal to take action within the near future, or what's usually quantified as the next six months (Prochaska & Velicer, 1997). At this point, the individual does not realize that their habits may be high-risk and will not believe you can find any reason to make a change. With dangerous sexual health behaviours, this may indicate engaging in intimate functions with multiple partners, not using hurdle coverage to provide against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or not using preventative measures to avoid unintended pregnancy. In order to make the differ from precontemplation, where in fact the individual will not view that there is anything wrong with their current conducts, to contemplation, where they start to realize that they need to make a action change to improve their health effects, may take many steps. You will discover constructs within the TTM that show how the transitions through these levels have the ability to occur.
The processes of change are a build of the TTM that describes the steps that the average person may go through while working through all the stages of change. While moving from precontemplation to contemplation, the individual will mostly be using consciousness-raising, dramatic comfort, self-reevaluation, environmental reevaluation, and self-liberation in this process. Consciousness-raising involves finding out new facts, ideas, or tips that will help someone make a healthy change. In the case of high school years adolescents, a lot of this can happen in college intimate health education classes. A prevention program in the school setting would work well for children, as this is actually the place where they spend nearly all their time. They have peers and friends in this environment, which may get them to more comfortable to wait since sexual behaviours are incredibly personal concerns. Also, possessing a protection program that is easy to get at allows the majority of the population has been come to and higher attendance. Research demonstrates there has been an increase in both abstinence among young adults and an increase in condom use during the last few years among teens who are sexually energetic; programs in the institution settings are most reliable if they train about both abstinence and condom use (U. S. Section of Health insurance and People Services, 2000). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) suggests that in senior high school age adolescents, these classes would be best trained by a tuned health trainer who understands the adolescent level of development and can use age-appropriate teaching methods. They also state that if a professional health education professor is not available, that it ought to be a faculty member with some similar training to provide effective education to teens (CDC, 2008). Instructors need to understand the adolescent mindset that they do not believe that bad things are likely to eventually them. The instructor must break during that mindset and reinforce that risky actions can have serious implications for the rest of these lives. When the adolescent can realize that these were engaging in manners that were risky predicated on these facts and ideas, the conscious-raising experience may be enough to get them to move from precontemplation to contemplation.
Often with adolescent populations, they might not realize they are at risk until they have a health scare. For a few, this can be a motherhood scare after having unprotected sexual intercourse. Experiencing these feelings, such as dread or stress and anxiety, and having the ability to associate these thoughts with a high-risk health behavior may be adequate to make the teen realize that a healthy change is essential. This is the construct of the TTM known as dramatic pain relief (Prochaska et al. , 2008).
As the teenage moves from precontemplation to contemplation, where they are really realizing the necessity for a change and have the intention to make a change in the near future, they might be reevaluating themselves; knowing that making this much healthier behavior change can be an important part of who they are and what they are going to become. This runs along with Erik Erikson's theory of development that children are working toward building their personality. This level requires adolescents to figure out who they are, and how they can participate in the rest of society (Boeree, 2006). Fitted in socially with peers is part of the environmental reevaluation that calls for places while moving from precontemplation to contemplation. Peer pressure and the necessity for approval can play a large role within an adolescent's choices, and they may be more likely to understand the necessity for a change in health behaviors if they recognize that teenage being pregnant or STIs have a poor effect on how their peers will view them and their potential to fit in. They could need to think about the professionals and cons of making a habit change, but as they see that there surely is more to gain through making a wholesome change, they may be ready to move to the next level. They may also realize that engaging in dangerous sexual habits is endangering their health and reputation (Prochaska et al. , 2008).
As the young is now fully aware that there is issues with current behaviors, and they now notice that soon they'll need to produce a change, they move to the preparation stage. They are going to begin to do this, and could have even integrated some healthy changes already. Self-liberation is one of the procedures of change where in fact the person is making an unyielding commitment to change. They could seek out supporting human relationships, where they may use sociable support for the healthy patterns change (Prochaska et al. , 2008). With intimate health behaviors, this may be as simple as the adolescent choosing to be around friends that practice abstinence or safe gender behaviors only. Adolescents want for the approval with their peers, so surrounding themselves with people who have similar conducts to those that they would like to perform is a way of ensuring they have the support they need and the inspiration to stay on track. In peer groupings, they might be in a position to discuss the down sides and troubles to remaining abstinent or using condoms with every erotic encounter, and give each other advice and support on keeping healthy behaviors. With the help of these romantic relationships, the adolescent will be able to undertake the preparation stage and onto action.
In the action phase, the young has had the opportunity to carry out the healthy erotic behaviors for under six months (Prochaska et al. , 2008). Inside the action period, the helping relationships will continue steadily to play a key role in support for the teen to continue the healthy conducts. By surrounding themselves with people who have similar beliefs and ideals, the adolescent will be to reinforce the tendencies change, and may start to start to see the positive effects of making their change. They may have less anxiety and stress related to STIs and unintended being pregnant, and they may have higher self-esteem related to the capability to make an informed choice that could be bettering their life over time. They are able to avoid any of the people or places that induced these to make risky sexual choices before, as so never to provoke that patterns again. Once the proper education has been provided, and young adults have the proper support systems, the interpersonal norms can transform from one where risky erotic behaviors were typical to 1 where abstinence and safeguard are popular thought systems (Prochaska et al. , 2008).
The maintenance phase is one where the teen will continue the patterns change for greater than half a year (Prochaska et al. , 2008). For erotic health habits in adolescents, it can be easy for those to relapse, perhaps out of peer pressure or the prefer to impress a new partner. It is very important that there are support systems and protection programs create within college systems for adolescents to encourage healthy erotic habits as well as somewhere they can go to if indeed they need help following a relapse. Understanding the functions of change is important when initiating a prevention program in the school setting (Prochaska & Velicer, 1997). The environment needs to be nonjudgmental, fact-based, and really should have source from adolescents. Adolescents might be able to look past the sense of invincibility occurring in the teenage years if they hear from a peer who experienced the same decisions and could have had an unhealthy health results, such as an untreated STI that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, an STI that is unable to be healed, or an unintended being pregnant that transformed the course of the individual's life forever.
The CDC expresses a good prevention program in the school environment should encourage young adults that have not yet involved in sexual behaviors to continue abstinence until in an adult and monogamous romantic relationship, preferably within the confines of matrimony. They also state that education regarding injecting illicit drugs should be included, as this is a significant risk factor for the pass on of HIV and Supports. For teens who are participating in sexual activity or are employing drugs that are injected, the preventative program should try to show them that discontinuing these actions would be best for their health, and they should avoid having sexual activity until these are in a mutually exclusive romantic relationship. Always, information and support should get to teens to stop using illicit drugs, especially injecting drugs (CDC, 2008).
It is insufficient to tell adolescents that they shouldn't be engaging in sexual activity, and it needs to be recognized that there it's still some people who assume that they are still not in danger, because their spouse would never be dishonest with them, and could not give them an illness. These teenagers need education as well regarding keeping away from sexual activity with people who are known to have HIV/AIDS, utilizing a latex condom with every intimate come across, and seeking healthcare if they believe that they could have a sexually sent disease (CDC, 2008). A elimination center in the school setting should be a place where teenagers have the ability to come without fear of wisdom, where they know they could be open and genuine, and will obtain open and honest answers in return. The faculty who work within the protection center ought to know where to refer adolescents if the issue they are coping with has gone out of the scope of the group.
In many situations, people may feel that openly discussing sexual behaviors can make teens feel that it is okay to engage in these actions so long as they use condoms, or engage in other sexual manners other than intercourse. It's important to be open and genuine, and describe that STIs can be sent through dental, anal, vaginal, or even just skin to skin area contact. As the hope is the fact adolescents won't engage in erotic acts until they can be in a mutually monogamous marriage, research has shown that the best education and preventative programs focus both on abstinence and condom use (U. S. Team of Health insurance and People Services, 2000). If all of these options are not being taught openly in a preventative environment, adolescents might want to get their information from friends, siblings, or the internet, which may or may well not be including factual information.
Having a preventative program can help with another of the key constructs of the TTM, which is self-efficacy. Self-efficacy, in cases like this, includes the self-confidence which allows the adolescent to cope with tempting habits and withstand a relapse. Self confidence is an issue that many high school age teens have a problem with, and developing a support system set up where people keep similar beliefs is key to their success in keeping a healthy action change. If temptations arise, the scholar has a location they know they can change to for advice and encouragement. If there is a relapse into high-risk sexual patterns, the university student also knows there is a place where they can go to and reunite on track. The TTM acknowledges that relapses happen, and allows for it. The individual can reenter or revert back again to the periods of change at any time following a relapse. Eventually, if the healthy sexual habit changes have been executed and used effectively for some time, the average person may move into the final level of the TTM - termination. On this phase, there is absolutely no longer any temptation to revert back to previous behaviours (Prochaska, et al. , 2008). The individual gets the healthy attitude, support system, values, and knowledge they are making the right alternatives and don't have any trouble resisting enticement. While this stage may not arise for many children, working through the TTM helps them to get to this stage in their young adult years.
The TTM, with the periods of change constructs, is a patterns model that can be used to use an unhealthy habit and change it into a long-term, ecological, healthy habit. The steps of the TTM happen naturally, and will work in the adolescent people. The TTM can be used to lay the foundation for continuing healthy sexual habits in the young adult years. A preventative program should be set up within the school system to guide children along their way and coach them the importance of responsible sexual behaviors. An educated and open staff will encourage adolescent involvement and create a host where abstinence or safe making love is the communal norm. When a preventative program can help a good percentage of the population from participating in risky sexual conducts while in their high school years, then we will be closer than ever to achieving the Healthy People goals.
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