Risk factors for psychosocial development in adolescents
Working with children of this category assumes an unconditional individual approach. The history of each child's development is not limited to the standard life path of the "average" United States schoolchildren. A specialist (psychologist, teacher, social worker, etc.) should always make an amendment to the fact that almost every one of these children has been subjected to cruel treatment. Let us dwell on this question in more detail. Violence against a child at any age has a serious impact on his psyche. However, the classification of cases of violence is often hampered by subjectivity in the assessment of many cases. For example, what for one person is violence, for another person is an acceptable, though cruel way of treating a child. This makes it difficult to identify cases of violence in a timely manner and organize child care.
Specialists identify four general categories of child abuse:
1. Physical violence. Inflicting physical injuries and bodily harm on the child, physical punishment (beating, shaking, blows, slaps, ears, drug and alcohol use).
2. Sexual violence. Violation of social and family taboos.
3. Disregard for the needs of the child. Lack of food, food, education, care, medical care, emotional warmth, refusal of vaccination.
4. Emotional violence. Constant rejection, humiliation, locking in a dark room, threats, intimidation.
In real life, different types of violence usually coexist.
The accommodation of the described situations contributes to the formation of a child's sense of uselessness, self-abasement, lack of independence, distrust of others. They have broken the so-called basic trust in the world. Children who are psychologically abused in the family fall out of the normal process of socialization - with positive reinforcement and support from the parents. Already in the younger school and adolescence, they begin to humiliate and exploit others.
The psychological consequences of parental punishment are reflected in the behavior, mood, psychological well-being of the adolescent. Usually punishment does not change, but only transforms behavior: one negative act is replaced by another. In general, the punishing education leads to the formation of an immature in the socio-psychological terms of the individual. It's a flight with pronounced ambition, increased sensitivity to remarks and grievances, a heightened sense of self-preservation. "
Not being able to satisfy the need for understanding, acceptance, acceptance in the field of family relations, the teenager seeks to compensate for his failure in an equally important area - the school. If there is a danger of repetition of the situation of failure in school, the child naturally operates a psychological defense mechanism. He begins to avoid school - from unsystematic absenteeism of classes until she completely refuses to attend. Teachers often encounter laziness as a form of protective behavior.
Children from families in which both or one parent is abusing alcohol, mostly have neuropsychic abnormalities of varying severity. The limited microsocial environment is the leading factor of pedagogical neglect, and its harmful effects can be traced at all stages of child ontogeny. Students have persistent problems with learning achievement and behavior, children are often in a state of depression, grief, fear, they have low self-esteem.
According to the ontogenetic levels of responding to this or that harmfulness for adolescence in clinical psychology, the affective (up to 12 years) and emotional-ideational levels of the neuropsychic reaction are characteristic. For the affective response level, syndromes and symptoms of fears, increased affective excitability with phenomena of negativism and aggression are characteristic. At this age, the risk of psychogenic disorders is significantly increased. Emotional-ideator level of response is leading at pubertal age. First of all, the neuropsychic reaction of a teenager to a stressful situation manifests itself in the so-called pathological reactions of pubertal age. They include, on the one hand, supervaluable hobbies and interests, on the other - supervalued hypochondriacal ideas, ideas of imaginary ugliness, psychogenic reactions of protest, opposition, emancipation.
The US Family Code of 1996 for the first time defines the basis for legal protection of children from domestic violence: the child is regarded as an independent subject of relations in the family, and not as a dependent object of parental authority.
Nevertheless, the changes in legislation are not supported by the mechanisms for their implementation: the boundaries of possible intervention in the family are not described, there is practically no possibility of temporary placement of the child in a substitute family after a case of violence.
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