Role distribution in the team - Organizational psychology

Role distribution in the command

In the process of teambuilding, each participant determines his place in the system of personal and business relations in the context of the organization. This process is called positioning. Positioning is carried out according to the goals to which the team is directed. For each team member, a list of the functions that will be executed according to his position is defined (recall, the behavior expected from a person occupying a certain position in the team is called a role). It is important that these functions are correctly addressed to their potential carriers and consistent with their individual characteristics. This raises the question of the command distribution of roles.

When forming commands, they are counted as functional roles, ie. the participant's behavior expected by the group, which is determined by the substantive content of the activities performed by him (financial, marketing, production, etc.), and command ( group) role, ie. Models of behavior that ensure the productive interaction of team members with each other. Both these realities - the substantive content of the activity and the human factor - are represented in the general concept of "role".

In the definition of role positions in the team, both typological approaches are used (the concept of DW Keirsey on psychotypes (intellectual roles), in which four positions stand out: the strategist - the diplomat - the tactician - the logistics)) and the role approaches (for example, in the concept of T. Yu. Bazarov also contains four role positions (organizer - administrator - manager - head)), and in the Belbin model there are eight team roles (coordinator - implementer - controller - motivator - idea generator - analyst - inspirer - supply, n More recently, the role of the "specialist" has been added.) The team is considered balanced if it presents the main substantive and intellectual positions.

A typological approach to solving the task of positioning team members can:

- used to form managerial ties such as leader-manager or leader-manager-facilitator;

- used to control the role balance of the team (the degree of its heterogeneity);

- to help clarify the role structure of the team itself, its strengths and weaknesses.

We have already noted that in the acquisition of management teams, the most appropriate use of the role-based approach. The essence of the approach is that the team will not be able to work effectively if all the tasks and functions that make up management activities will not be realized and eliminated all the weak links.

A role-based approach can be represented by several concepts. The most popular at the moment are:

- the concept of the command roles of RM Belbin, which allows you to identify the settings and abilities for various command roles;

- command wheel Marguerison-McKen, which describes eight work functions in the management process, analyzes the types of tasks that the team can perform, and makes it possible to optimize management activities;

- a model of managerial roles T. Yu. Bazarova, based on the model of management GP Schedrovitsky and describes the four roles of roles and their corresponding tasks, as well as the ability/competence for each role.

One of the most demanded in the practice of team building models is the model of the command roles of RM Belbin. Professor Raymond Meredith Belbin (Great Britain) is the creator of the theory and model of "Roles in the management team", the author of books that have become a desktop tool for managers. The book of RM Belbina "Teams of managers. The secrets of success and the causes of failures is on the list of the most read books on management. In addition, such popularity is due to the availability of an accessible diagnostic tool - Belbin self-perception questionnaire, which allows to assess the preferences for team roles.

Several years of experiments in production, the analysis of successful and unsuccessful teams, made it possible to identify RM Belbin eight roles of members of an effective team, which were grouped in pairs according to their functional purpose (Table 6.6).

It is important to note that the best team composition can vary depending on the task. According to RM Belbin, a list of eight roles is necessary and sufficient for staffing the team. However, this does not mean that all eight team roles are always necessary - for any group and in any situation. In the first place in any team - balance, balance and presence in the team of roles that perform key functions - leadership, communication, intellectual development, activities in the main business process.

The author of the model draws attention to the construction of inefficient commands. Inefficient commands are divided into two types:

1) inefficient teams formed in an imperfect corporate culture (they repeat the mistakes and misconceptions that exist in the organization);

Table 6.6

Commanding roles for RM Blblin

Type/Symbol

Functionality

Typical features

Positive qualities

Acceptable shortcomings

The implementer (working bee)/RP

Managers-Troyagi

Conservative, executive

Organizational abilities, practicality, vigor, self-discipline

Lack of flexibility, insensitivity to unverified ideas

Controller/CN

Scrupulous, organized, conscientious, emotionally unstable

The ability to make friendships, strive for excellence in everything

A tendency to worry about trifles. Aversion to the expression "throw out of your head"

Coordinator (leader)/RC

Leaders

Calm, confident, controlled

Ability without prejudice to listen, consider and evaluate the merits of all proposals. Strong motivation to achieve the set goals

Common in terms of intelligence and creativity

Motivator/MT

Very nervous, responsive, dynamic

Internal impulse and willingness to fight with inertia, inactivity, complacency or self-deception

Propensity to discontent, irritation and impatience

Idea generator/GI

Intellectuals

An individualist, serious, unorthodox

Giftedness, ingenuity, intelligence, knowledge

Hangs in the clouds & quot ;, underestimates the practical details or the need for a protocol

Analyst/AN

Prudent, unperturbed, prudent

Discretion, discernment, good mental abilities

Lack of inspiration or ability to motivate others

Inspirer/WD

Negotiators

Socially-oriented, calm, sensitive

The ability to take responsibility for people and be responsible for the situation, create and maintain team spirit

Indecision at decisive moments

Supplier (prospector)/CH

An extrovert, keen, inquisitive, sociable

Well in contact with people and develops something new. Is resistant in a complex environment

Loses interest in the work when its initial appeal passes

2) inefficient commands with an unsuccessful combination of the individual characteristics of its members, when for various reasons it is not possible to find the most suitable command role for each person.

According to RM Belbin, not every person is capable of teamwork. Approximately 30% can not find a team role. Such employees work best in an individual mode. The rest can identify two or three roles, to which the person fits best - this is usually the main and reserve role.

The Belbin model preserves the principle of heterogeneity. So, the author specifically considered homogeneous commands of the type "Apollo", consisting of some "idea generators". It turned out that, despite the unification of intellectuals with a high level of creativity, the productive potential of such a team is much lower than that of individual work.

The model of Belbin's team roles can be widely used. It can be used to think about the balance in the team before the start of the project; Use it to determine and, thus, manage the interpersonal differences of the members of the existing team; use to develop a team player. The model is the guide on the development of the strengths of the team and overcoming the weak, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each member of the team performing this or that role.

The idea of ​​group roles was further developed in the "Wheel of the Team" model, developed by Margherison and McKen (1991) (Table 6.7). The management process in this model is divided into eight work functions and one area of ​​coordination activity called "link formation"/"links." Symbolically, the model is presented in the form of a wheel with eight segments and a core. In accordance with these eight basic functions, eight types of individual preferences or team roles are recorded. For link formation a separate role is not allocated, because it is believed that this type of activity can be performed by any member of the team with developed communicative attitudes.

Table 6.7

Marguerison-McKen model

Task type (work functions)

Role. Individual preferences

Counseling - receiving and providing information through external and internal communications

Speaker-consultant & quot ;. Copes with the collection of information and can make information accessible and understandable to others. Prefers to collect all the information before the action begins. Avoids conflicts and direct collisions

Innovation - the promotion of new ideas and their promotion

Innovator-developer & quot ;. Has a broad view, an orientation toward the future, a readiness to listen and perceive information, a desire for improvement, going beyond the framework of standard solutions. Absorbed by his ideas, can be scattered and inattentive. May remain misunderstood

Stimulation - the transfer of treatment to customers and key stakeholders inside and outside the organization

Research promoter & quot ;. Can become the initiator of change, energetic, able to work in several directions at the same time, quickly catches what is happening. Enterprising, has the skills of persuasion. Not interested in aspects of control and organization, may not pay enough attention to detail

Development - planning and training activities (testing of new products, analysis of procurement indicators, design, development of new business areas, reorganization, development of new activity systems)

Evaluation & Development Specialist & quot ;. He is eager to promote ideas and implement innovations, is inclined to project activities. It does not always generate productive ideas on its own, but is able to work perfectly with the ideas of others, and does not forget about the "pitfalls". May lose interest at the stage of functioning

Organization - settling issues of the relationship between people and tasks,

Organizer Coordinator & quot ;. It is inclined to influence events, it makes an easy decision. Moves towards the goal, overcoming the conflict -

includes four factors: external technical factor (system), internal technical factor (contract), internal human factor (personnel), external human factor (clients)

You, concentrates on goals, objectives, timelines and budget constraints. Subordinates its activities to the plan. Can ignore the interests of others

Production - development and implementation of systematic structured methods that allow people to carry out regular activities

Production & amp; production specialist & quot ;. Efficiently and skillfully performs the work. Practical, rational, concentrates on real problems and projects. Is able to comply with the deadlines, work according to the plan, is focused on systematic methods. There is a need for a clear structure and distribution of responsibilities. Is able to perform the same work for a long time, can resist changes

Control - is important in regular activities and requires attention to detail (especially important in product testing)

Inspection inspector & quot ;. He prefers to work independently, his contribution will be visible and effective if the team understands what is required of it. An ideal researcher, is able to collect a lot of information, but is not inclined to advance his achievements and can delay the time

Maintenance - ensuring stable product quality and customer service. Defines the team's activities in terms of security, reliability, ethics, loyalty, retention of old customers, ability to meet the requirements of the time

Specialist for maintaining the achieved level & quot ;. More relaxed compared to other team members.

Not inclined to immediate reactions, deeply studying the question before acting. Has firm principles and sustainable values ​​

Links - providing links between:

- team members;

- the team and other groups in the organization;

- team and vendors

- command and clients

All roles. Any member of the team is able to listen, is ready to help, can manage interaction, has advanced communication skills, is able to organize decision-making and setting goals in a group, delegates authority and assigns responsibilities, is focused on developing a team.

Model team wheel Analyzes the types of tasks that are effectively and ineffectively handled by the team. For diagnosis, various questionnaire techniques, interviews and group reflexive sessions are used. During reflexive sessions, team members are asked to assess the importance and quality of the solution by a team of various tasks, after which a group discussion takes place. As a result, the team clearly understands what working functions currently suffer, and which are performed relatively efficiently. In the case of inefficient execution of functions, the command role is redistributed. Thus, the team acquires powerful reflexive means for analyzing activities and impacts through discussion, design and planning of its own activities.

In the domestic psychology, the model of managerial roles was developed by T. Yu. Bazarov (2005). At the heart of the model is the model of the administrative activity of GP Schedrovitsky. Bazarov's model examines the management process through four types of tasks. These tasks are combined on the principle of "from general to specific":

a) the actual management tasks - strategic planning and changing the position of the organization on the market:

- determining the strategic directions of the organization's development and the conditions under which the chosen directions should be changed;

- SWOT -analysis;

- definition of strategic goals and directions of development of the organization;

- strategy development; identification of strategic partners, establishment of links;

b) Organizational tasks - designing business processes and organizational structure, developing activities to achieve the organization's goals:

- innovation, modernization, change of business processes;

- distribution of jobs and functions;

- designing the activities of units and posts;

- the establishment of technological standards, the design of mechanisms for monitoring their compliance;

- distribution of responsibility, setting of norms of activity;

c) administrative tasks - planning and resource allocation:

- operational management, maintenance of business processes and organizational structure in the mode of operation;

- tactical planning;

- operational allocation and redistribution of resources;

- ensuring control over the use of resources by units;

- evaluation of current work results and their compliance with resource constraints;

d) management tasks - the direction of the potential of employees, the settlement of issues related to people:

- training, motivation, mentoring, conflict management;

- selection, placement and evaluation of employees;

- ensuring proper understanding and performance of subordinate tasks;

- translation of organizational norms, values, traditions and rituals of behavior.

Corresponding to the task type, four managerial roles and the competencies necessary for their execution are described (Table 6.8).

Effective implementation of the role assumes that the employee should be entrusted with the appropriate tasks, he must have a psychological willingness to address them and must have the necessary abilities.

Table 6.8

Managerial roles in the model of T. Yu. Bazarov

Role

Abilities/Competencies

Manager

The ability to flexibly redefine your goals and approaches, work in a situation of uncertainty, focus on maximizing your winnings. Necessary qualities: non-standard thinking *, flexibility of thinking, strategic thinking *, flexibility in communication, motivation to achieve, readiness for change *

Organizer

A clear vision of the final result and the design of the stages of its achievement, without getting bogged down in details, the ability to group functions in an optimal and consistent manner, structure large amounts of information, and flexibly take into account limitations in the design of structures and technologies. Necessary qualities: systemic thinking, flexibility of thinking *, ability to design *, orientation to a specific result; ability to negotiate; readiness for change

Administrator

Orientation to stable activity, ability to work with large volumes of information, estimate resource costs, predict "temporary" conflicts. Necessary qualities: systematic thinking *, ability to plan *, orientation to a specific result, ability to negotiate, responsibility *

Executive

Authority and influence in the group, regardless of official position, the ability to rally the group, inspire, awaken labor enthusiasm, it is important to be able to analyze the socio-psychological climate, predict and resolve conflicts. Necessary qualities: dynamism of thinking, orientation to a specific result, leadership of the group *, effectiveness of interaction with people *, flexibility in communication

Note : The * symbol indicates the key abilities/competencies for each role.

T. Yu. Bazarov's model can be used to complete the management teams. It is optimal for cases where it is required to assess the management potential of a sample or rank it in terms of their managerial activities of a particular type, and then form a management team of them, for example, when forming a reserve of management personnel. The model is equipped for this purpose with developed psychodiagnostic tools. The model allows you to form a team that will with a high degree of probability cope with management tasks of various types, and determine the scope of its powers. In addition, the model can be used to analyze the management system of the organization as a whole, because it describes critical control points.

The use of a particular model is determined by the specific management situation. If failures are expected due to the human factor or projected contradictions within the team, it is best to use the Belbin model. If the team has a rich communication with the outside world - the Marguerison-McKen model is optimal, in which the topic of communication is maximally worked out. If there are significant failures in the management system within the organization as such or there is no confidence in the amount of authority delegated to the team, then before the formation of the management team it is expedient to conduct diagnostics based on the Bazarov model.

No single ideal set of roles exists for any team. In fact, they are unique in every team. However, it is possible to describe several relatively invariant roles for all groups, for example, "leader", "expert" (authority), "newcomer", "oppositionist".

So, the team leader is someone who is best able to organize a group to perform activities, to unite participants on the basis of common interests for them and to support their commitment to common values. The leader knows how to prioritize, motivate followers, knows the art of interpersonal relationships, charismatic, is able to take risks, flexible, is aimed at transformation and development. The leader inspires people and inspires them with enthusiasm, by developing a vision of the future and ways to achieve it. He constantly tries to develop new and ambiguous solutions to the problem. Leadership is a process of active interpersonal influence, arises in a system of informal relations, which, in turn, break up into business and emotional ones. Therefore, we can talk about the business and emotional type of leadership.

The team manager, unlike the leader, is the administrator, performs the functions of orientation and control. He develops a plan that is the basis of his actions, relies on the system, works on the goals of others. As a rule, these two functions (leadership and managerial) are difficult to combine. To effectively perform leadership tasks, you need to anticipate and go beyond the limits of the situation, and to perform managerial tasks you need to act in real time, plunging into the details of the actual situation. Based on this, the "leader-manager" bundle " is the "minimal structural unit necessary for the successful management of the group's activities."

The problem of teambuilding is directly related to the considerable role of the leader in this process. You can describe changes in the role and position of the leader as the team is formed (Table 6.9). The professionalism of the manager is largely determined by his ability to transform the organization's structural divisions into professional self-regulating teams.

Table 6.9

Change of manager's position as the team develops (according to O. Evtikhov, 2007)

Stages of team development

The role of the leader and his tasks

1. Beginning team

The leader is at the center of all interactions in the group. He coordinates the actions of all team members, motivates and trains them, monitors the results and effectiveness of each subordinate. The main tasks of the manager: the definition of the functions of subordinates, ensuring their ability to perform their work independently and be responsible for their actions

2. Command

Transitional

period

Team members form the appropriate professional competence and take on more and more responsibility for the work performed, the manager is relieved of the need to monitor the actions of each subordinate and allows team members to interact directly with each other in solving problems. At the same time, the head's attention is shifted from monitoring the activities of each subordinate to coordinate intra-group interactions of employees. The main tasks of the manager: ensuring the ability of subordinates to independently and directly interact with each other, monitoring the overall group activities

3. Experienced team

Team members acquire the experience of professional intra-group interaction, the leader allows team members to coordinate the overall group activity themselves.

It takes less time to track the daily activities of employees, therefore, there is more time to obtain additional external resources for the team and manage the external relations of the group. The main tasks of the manager: monitoring the effectiveness of the team, managing relationships with external agencies

4. Mature team

The team is fully responsible for its work. It solves most administrative and professional issues, plans its work independently, distributes roles and responsibilities, overcomes technical and other difficulties with minimal outside interference. The manager gets the opportunity to move to the managerial level. It coordinates the interaction of several teams and distributes resources between them. At the request of the team, the manager can directly assist her (in this case, the team goes to the previous stage), or involves external sources for this

Professional becoming a leader can be represented by the formula "Guide - Management - Leadership". Initially, the leader mastered the functions of direct leadership of people. Then he is released from them, delegating them to his subordinates, and assumes the functions of managing the organization. Then he delegates these functions, fully focusing on the functions of the position leader.

The role of the new team member is no less interesting. On the one hand, team members often expect that newcomers will be preoccupied, passive, dependent and conformist-minded. Moreover, newcomers with such characteristics are more likely to be accepted by the old (full-fledged) team members. On the other hand, newcomers inevitably pose some threat to the team. Often this happens because of a fresh and relatively objective view of the team, which causes them to ask questions or express concerns that are disturbing.

You can distinguish different roles for newbies :

1) Visitors are expected to stay in the team for a short time and will not be able to help achieve long-term goals, since they are considered to be inadequately committed, their ability to change the team is not discussed;

2) passing employees - those who have recently belonged to a similar group and have experience;

3) Substitute employees - take the place of former members;

4) Consultants - join the team to learn methods of work and offer improvements.

The formation of a team is impossible without the development of its members, their group socialization. Getting into the team, the individual develops consistently, cognitive, affective and behavioral changes occur, which result from the interaction of the individual and the group throughout the interaction time.

For the successful operation of the team, you need a clear positioning and distribution of team roles. The general idea of ​​team building is to determine which team can perform a particular role with maximum efficiency, and make sure that all the roles necessary for effective operations are performed as much as possible.

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