The reason for the suggested qualitative analysis is to explore a 21st century plan to protect people' civil liberties because the united states is battling to balance between liberty and security since the terrorist problems of September 2001. This review will also identify individuals' willingness to forfeit their civil liberties in substitution for greater nationwide security. Furthermore, the analysis will also emphasize how U. S. brains companies are violating individuals' civil liberties in this era and how building a comprehensive insurance policy will limit the government ability from curtailing civil liberties for the sake of countrywide security.
In order to provide answers to prospects research questions that related to constraints of civil liberties, research workers cannot just read quickly across the surface, instead they need to dig deep to acquire full knowledge of the problem being investigated. One effective way to do this is doing a qualitative study in which researchers collect various forms of information and evaluate them from different sides to produce an important and significant picture of a comprehensive situation (Creswell, 2009). According Leedy and Ormrod (2010) experts execute qualitative research as a way of exploring phenomena that happen in natural options and they examine those phenomena in every their complexity. Qualitative research studies serve many reasons, such as they expose the nature of certain situations, they allow researcher to obtain new perspectives in regards to a particular phenomenon, create new theories or theoretical insights about the experience and determine the problems that are present within the happening. Moreover, qualitative research studies also enable experts to look at the validity of certain wide-ranging assumptions, theories, statements or generalizations within real natural adjustments. At last, they serve as a way by which a researcher can evaluate if a certain insurance policy is effective in a business (Leedy & Ormrod).
Another important part when executing a qualitative analysis is to find the qualitative research design that is more desirable to answer the study questions. The suggested research questions that are related to the trend must be aligned with the reason affirmation. Also, all qualitative research questions should be open-ended questions and reflect the nature of the study design. Leedy and Ormrod (2010) have pointed out five common qualitative research designs that experts have a tendency to choose from when performing qualitative research: case study, ethnography, phenomenological review, ground theory review, and content analysis. Each of those designs will enable researchers to offer an understanding to a specific phenomenon.
Secondary Data and Earth Theory
This qualitative research is supposed to use extra data and the ground theory design. Secondary data is data that was previously collected and may be examined by individuals apart from the researcher for reasons other than the original goal. Calantone and Shawnee (2009) emphasized that secondary data can be retrieved from data from government organizations (census data, labor information, new housing starts), large studies conducted by other experts, and from existing archives. In this research, information about civil liberties and terrorism will be gathered from various research archival directories such as Proquest, Ebrary and Gale Academy Onefile using the keywords of civil liberties and terrorism. Only articles publicized within the last 10 years will be determined because of this research to make a significant contribution to the field of knowledge. The PATRIOT Function of 2001 may also be investigated carefully to underline some of its shortcomings about civil protection under the law violation and the leeway that it offers to government officials.
In addition, the bottom theory way will be utilized which runs on the prescribed set of procedures for analyzing data and creating a theoretical model from them
(Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). A ground research study mostly targets people's actions and inactions related to a specific topic, with the key goal of fabricating a theory about the procedure which was performed. Given the fact that only supplementary data will be used in this study, the ground theory way is the most appropriate research design because it allows researchers to use interviews, observations, historical details, videotapes, and any documents that relevance to the interested research question (Creswell, 2010). This newspaper aims to recognize the talents and weaknesses of using extra data and the bottom theory research design and justify why this chosen research method and design are well suited for the proposed research.
Strengths and Weakness of using Supplementary data
According to Calantone and Shawnee (2009) using secondary has tremendous benefits, such as, it affordable and required less time because the original researcher has recently spent the time and money to acquire and evaluate the collected data. In addition, supplementary data is also accessible to a sizable number of scholars allowing for true re-search as well as duplication and validation studies. Additionally, when compare to principal data, extra data from archival databases tend to be objective since it is free from contaminants by respondent perceptions and/or remembrances of the trend of interest (Calantone & Shawnee, 2009). Furthermore, using extra data can boost the veracity of a study study through the elimination of the chance that the goal of the research may have manipulated the review instrument, the design of the research questions, or population(s) sampled. Calantone and Shawnee further stated that "secondary data can be coupled with other types of data to investigate phenomena more thoroughly or in an information establishing using tools such as Bayesian inference" (Calantone & Shawnee, 2009, p. 96).
Similarly, Lockwood (2006) highlighted that whenever using supplementary data, a researcher can compare between groupings, societies and nations. This research method supplies the researcher the opportunity to replicate research studies. For instance, in her research, Lockwood used supplementary data to research common way to obtain look after cervical cancer testing and to research cervical cancer screening process distinctions from a national perspective. Using supplementary data, Lockwood (2006) could analyze the info and set up a theory which can offer nurse inquirers with higher knowledge about cancer. Nevertheless, Lockwood also remarked that when using extra data, researchers might not have sufficient data collection to provide answers to their interest research questions. Such information is extremely important since it allows researcher to recognize mistakes, bias, or issues with internal or external validity (Lockwood, 2009).
Furthermore, Christopher (2008) has highlighted one major gain and shortcoming of supplementary data, such as affordable and reduction control. As previously mentioned, it is less costly to carry out research using extra information than major data because the original researcher has paid for the costs. Thus, the expenses will be minimized but it isn't a free ride because using supplementary data does feature a penalty which is the fact experts cannot exercise any control over their era. Thus, researchers need to be knowledgeable about the procedure that was used to accumulate the data because these were not mixed up in gathering of the info. Furthermore, Christopher (2008) remarked that by not having total control over the technology, researchers may find it slightly difficult to manipulate the accumulated data into the right form because the info was produced for another goal. Overall, Christopher concluded that using secondary data is effective since it strengths the researcher to mirror more strongly about the theoretical seeks and substantive issues of the analysis rather than the sensible and methodological problems of collecting new data (Christopher, 2008).
Strengths and Weaknesses of Floor Theory Design
The ground theory research design has been used as a qualitative strategy in many studies, such as, to investigate how parents who children are incarcerated in point out penitentiaries deal with the feelings of uncertainty. Also, analysts have used it to carry out studies how people live with HIV and take care of their illness (Byrne, 2010). Corresponding to Leedy and Ormrod, the bottom theory is started in sociology and it's been in neuro-scientific geography, anthropology, nursing, education, mindset and cultural work to execute studies when current theories about a occurrence are either unexplored or under explored. The only real purpose of surface theory is to create theory from the collected data.
Additionally, floor theory involves many steps that if examined and performed careful is considered to "guarantee" a good theory as the outcome. Those steps include open up coding, axial coding, and selective coding (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). With this research study, data will be examined using the foresaid steps to develop a theory which will offer an understanding to why the federal government is absolutely curtailing citizens' civil rights and a 21st century coverage will be created to safeguard those privileges. Leedy and Ormrod stated that the theory should be predicated on the data accumulated and it should show the growing nature of the experience and clarifies how certain conditions direct to certain activities or connections, how those activities or relationships lead to other activities, with the typical sequence of incidents being laid out (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010).
In analysis about research methodologies, Suhonen (2009) recognized a few of the advantages using surface theory, such as; it identifies the situated dynamics knowledge, as well as the dependent characteristics of practice. Earth theory also provides a substantial description that properly acknowledges regions of turmoil and contradiction which is more likely to attain a persistence of what really happens. Alternatively, Suhonen also highlighted some weaknesses of using ground theory. For instance, floor theory saturates the researcher with too much data which make it difficult to regulate. In addition, it provides no standard rule to follow and the researcher needs to be well skilled with the method.
Nevertheless, Leedy and Ormroad (2010) remarked that ground theory review is a highly effective way to deal with a study problem. For example, by using the floor theory design, this suggested study provides a explanation of the research question, an assessment of the literature will be conducted not to provide a theory but to give a justification and context for the analysis. Furthermore, a information of the methodology and data examination will be carried which include the specifics methods that was used such as interviews documents, observations, or archival information and the way the collected data was influenced by the info analysis. Then your theory will be shown plus a conversation of implications that will depict any similarities or dissimilarities from other theoretical perspectives (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010).
Overall, using extra data and the bottom theory design are the most appropriate solution to address the research questions. For instance, the bottom theory offers a framework and relatively systematic way to boiling down a huge body of data into a concise conceptual platform that identifies and explains a specific happening (Leedy& Ormrod, 2010). Also, secondary data can be very attractive to graduate students who've insufficient money to perform research. Cotton (1998) implied that supplementary data not only offer advantages in terms of cost and effort, but also that in certain conditions their use may overcome some of the difficulties that especially cause problems for analysts when collecting main data. Furthermore, by using secondary data in this proposed research project, the researcher will avoid a few of the ethical concerns surround research with real human individuals. Jackson (2008) emphasized that whenever conducting research with human or nonhuman topics, the researcher is ultimately responsible for their welfare and it is the researcher's responsibility to safeguard them from any potential injury.
According to Creswell (2009) studies that included the use of human themes needs are carefully reviewed in order to protect the individuals from any harm. Because of this, researchers need to value vulnerable populations rather than put their individuals at risk. Furthermore, researchers need to ensure that their participants signed an informed consent form which outlined any potential dangers before they take part in the research. Creswell also outlined that both individuals and the researcher should take advantage of the research study and no one should be coerced into any studies. Overall, Jackson (2008) figured the rights of these participating in any clinical tests and all risks should be posted in a words that is understandable to all or any participants. Nevertheless, the procedure is somewhat different when the researcher is using previously gathered data.
For instance, Legislations (2005) outlined that there are major concerns that should not be overlooked when using extra data, like the potential for injury to the research individuals and the lack of informed consent. However, obtaining research content' consent to re-use recently collected data can boost other moral concerns, including a breach of these privacy because the initial researcher would need to identify the individuals before the second researcher could start connection with them. Other researchers have suggested that the original researcher should contact the individuals and obtaining their consent about re-using the info because the individuals may be unwilling to disclose any information to the supplementary researcher given that they don't have any rapport (Rules, 2005).
Using a quantitative research method and the study research design for this proposed analysis would create a less desirable final result. According to Leedy and Ormrod, experts conduct a quantitative research when there's a need for conclusive answers to research questions. In addition, the sole reason for a quantitative analysis is to "determine the partnership between an independent changing and a dependent or outcome variable in a society" (Creswell, 2009, p. 97).
In a quantitative research, the researcher chooses an example that almost represents the population and they are permitted to test specifics hypothesis, and the results for each hypothesis may vary because some can be recognized while others are certainly not. This technique and research design would not be the most likely for the research questions because the suggested research's main target is to recognize the gaps been around in the books about curtailing civil liberties and create a theory which may be used to put into practice a policy that would protect people' civil liberties in this post 9/11 time. Only the ground theory design would be suitable to carry out such activity in a qualitative study.
Similarly, using the survey research design is deemed less desirable for the proposed review. Despite the fact that, the survey research design allows analysts to find out about a large group of people by surveying an example of that population, the procedure of colleting such data can be costly and required a lot of time and energy. According to Leedy and Ormrod (2010) a survey research consists of getting information about one or more sets of individuals by requesting them questions about their opinions, characteristics, attitudes or previous experience. Leedy and Ormrod further stated that when doing a survey research, a researcher can use telephone interviews, in person interviews or written questionnaires.
However, when executing telephone interviews, the expense and time may be unreasonable if the needed interviewees live in a variety of countries, provinces or says (Leedy & Ormrod, 2010). Jackson (2008) explained that although there huge benefits of executing telephone surveys, there's also several cons, such as they are more time-consuming when compared to a mail survey just because a researcher must read each of the questions and record the responses. Also, the analysts must call the individuals or employ someone to place the telephone calls; such method can be quite expensive. Thirdly, is the problem of interviewer bias and finally the individuals may be more more likely to give desirable responses over the phone than on the mail review.
Additionally, Leedy and Ormrod have underlined different drawbacks associated with executing review research, such as, a low return rate because most people who get questionnaires have a tendency to trash them without even beginning them. Also, members' response will represent their reading and writing skills, and may be their misinterpretation of 1 or more questions. Nevertheless, there are a few advantages associated with using study research design like this design is cheaper because researcher will not need to go to conduct interviews, which is incredibly costly. Moreover, the mail review has allowed the researcher to accumulate more very sensitive information because members many not be eager to provide such information to a stranger on calling. Also, a mail study is more appropriate and complete because the members have a tendency to spend more time to answers the questions thoroughly without sensing the pressure of someone looking forward to answer (Leedy & Ormrod). However, Creswell (2009) remarked that a survey research design makes critical demands on the researcher to the point if not critically reputed, may jeopardize the whole research effort.
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