Self-consciousness as a component of the mental image of the...

Self-Consciousness as a Component of the Psychic Personality

General idea of ​​self-awareness and its structure

A. N. Leontiev, describing the problem of self-consciousness as a problem of high vital importance, crowning the psychology of the individual, regarded it as a whole, unsolved, eluding scientific and psychological analysis. Indeed, up to the present time there is no more or less definite and universally recognized interpretation of this particular subjective reality. More often than not, self-awareness is seen as a person's orientation in self, self-awareness as "I". Self-consciousness allows a person, reflecting the outside world, to distinguish himself in him, to realize his attitude to this world and himself in his relationships with others, to know his own inner world, to experience and to assess it in a certain way.

Self-awareness is the awareness and holistic assessment of yourself and your place in life. It is aimed at the person himself, his inner world, on the cognition and evaluation of his physical qualities, thoughts, feelings, desires. Due to self-consciousness, a person perceives himself as an individual reality, separate from nature and other people.

If consciousness is oriented to the entire objective world, then the object of self-consciousness is the personality itself. In self-consciousness, it acts both as a subject and as an object of knowledge and relationships.

It should be noted, and this was repeatedly emphasized by SL Rubinshtein that self-consciousness does not superimpose itself externally on the individual, but is included in the process of its development as a definite moment, side, component. This is the realization of oneself as a conscious subject, a real individual, and not at all an awareness of one's consciousness.

Historically, self-consciousness is a later product of development, which appeared on the basis of consciousness and with it the arising speech. Various acts of self-awareness - it's like a person's communication with himself. To this end, as noted by the well-known expert in the field of the psychology of self-consciousness of I. I. Chesnokov, it is necessary to develop internal speech, the sufficient formation of such thinking properties as abstraction and generalization that allow the subject to compose a concept and concept of his "I", other than " I another.

At the heart of the problem of self-awareness lies the distinction of its two sides: the selection of "I" as a subject, and as an object of self-knowledge and self-relationship (reflexive self). In psychological science, this is fundamental for all the theories I The distinction was introduced by W. James, who believed that in a single and holistic "I" (Self) contains two inseparable components that exist simultaneously: pure experience ("I conscious") and the content of this experience ("I as an object", empirical "I" ;).

Under the clean , or knower , I James assumes the thinking subject, who feels the subject of his actions, perceptions , emotions and aware of their identity and continuity with what he was the day before. This sense of I & quot ;, or the degree of subjective centering system may be more or less clearly expressed or diffuse. Our consciousness is fluid and changeable, and the "clean I" It is seen as a changeless substratum figure, causing a change in our mind, always and everywhere identical with itself - unchangeable principle of our spiritual activities, according to James

.

By empirical "I" (or "My") James understands the totality, the sum total of what a person can call his own. The empirical "I" is divided into three parts.

• The first part contains the composite elements of the personality, which includes:

physical I - body organization, clothing, family, home, property;

social I - representations and evaluation by other people of your own "I", social roles and statuses, i.e. then, what do people recognize as a person? In this case, each person has so many social "I", how many there are separate groups with the opinion of which he is considered;

spiritual I - a collection of mental characteristics, inclinations and abilities.

• The second part is feelings and emotions caused by the above elements, or self-esteem. According to James, self-esteem is of two kinds: complacency and discontent with yourself. Complacency includes feelings such as pride, arrogance, self-respect, arrogance, vanity, and dissatisfaction with oneself - modesty, humiliation, embarrassment, uncertainty, shame, remorse, the consciousness of one's own shame and despair. U.

У. James argues that a person's well-being depends on his success or failure in the development of the most significant, strongest part of his "I." Failures in the development of this particular side of the character can cause discontent with oneself, shame and embarrassment, and success - a sense of joy and self-satisfaction. Failure or success in something else, that has a relationship to this side, will not be experienced

As a failure or true success and, accordingly, influence self-esteem. Thus, according to James, self-esteem is due to what business we are destined for, and is determined by the ratio of our actual abilities that provide success, to the potential or perceived abilities that make up our claims. This is expressed in his famous formula

Self-esteem = Success/Claim.

Do not understand James's formula in a simplistic way, in the sense that any success in any business or any decrease in claims will lead to an increase in self-esteem. No, this formula works only for the most important side of the person's personality, chosen by himself. And if he chose really one of the strongest aspects of his personality, then he will often be accompanied by success, and therefore, self-esteem.

• The third part of the empirical I - human actions, i.e. self-care and self-preservation.

У. James is known as the first psychologist who started developing the problematic "I", however many of his views are quite relevant today. This is especially true of the ratio of self-esteem and the level of claims, as well as the three-component structure "I", which includes cognitive, emotional and behavioral components, which he singled out

Self-consciousness can be considered not only as a structural formation, but also as a particularly complex process, the dynamic formation of the psyche, which is in constant motion in ontogeny and in daily functioning. In the real life of the personality, as I. I. Chesnokov points out, self-consciousness manifests itself in the indissoluble unity of its individual internal processes - self-knowledge, emotional-value attitude to self and self-regulation of behavior. The result of the process of self-consciousness is the "I-concept."

I-concept is a system of relatively stable and conscious representations of a person about oneself; experienced attitude towards himself in general or to individual parties of his personality and their evaluation. This is not just a result of self-awareness, an important determinant of behavior.

There are different ideas about the structure of self-consciousness.

Example

So, the domestic psychologist VS Merlin (1892-1982) believes that self-consciousness includes as special components:

• the consciousness of one's identity;

• the consciousness of your own I as an active, active beginning:

• Awareness of their mental properties and qualities;

• a certain system of social and moral self-esteem.

All these elements are related to each other functionally and genetically, but they are not formed simultaneously. The germ of the consciousness of identity appears already in the infant, when he begins to distinguish sensations caused by external objects and his own body. Consciousness I is manifested with about three years, when the child begins to properly use personal pronouns. Awareness of their mental qualities and self-esteem acquire the greatest importance in adolescence and adolescence. Since all these components are interrelated, the enrichment of one of them inevitably modifies the entire system.

A somewhat different idea of ​​the structure of self-consciousness belongs to the well-known United States psychologist VS Mukhina, who singles out five links in a hundred structures.

The first link is the proper name, around which the self-conscious self is formed. Identification with the name occurs from the first years: it is difficult for a child to think of himself outside the name, he lays down in the basis of self-consciousness, acquires a special personal meaning. Thanks to the name, the child is given the opportunity to present himself as isolated from other unique individuals.

The second link in the structure of self-consciousness is the claim for recognition. From an early age, the child discovers that all actions are divided into "good" and bad & quot ;. Since all good is emotionally encouraged, the child has a desire to be good, a desire to recognize himself as good. Realizing the claim to recognition in all the variety of activities, a person affirms self-esteem and self-worth.

The third link in the structure of self-awareness is sexual identification. It includes the psychological recognition of one's own identity with one's sex in the physical, social and psychological terms.

The fourth link - psychological personality time , associated with the construction of a subjective picture of the life path, the desire to correlate the present with itself in the past and the future.

The fifth link in the structure of self-consciousness is the social space of the person. This is the sphere of human rights and duties that determines the style and content of communication in accordance with the norms of culture to which it belongs.

Foreign researchers J. Caprara and D. Servon, based on a review of works devoted to the "I-concept", singled out five of its aspects:

1) images of personal qualities and attributes, i.e. a variety of ideas about themselves, which are gradually connected and organized;

2) evaluation of self-worth, or self-esteem, - the idea of ​​the value of their own attributes;

3) the idea of ​​self-efficacy, i.e. perception of their own effectiveness, competence; the idea of ​​the ability to perform certain actions that will lead to success;

4) metacognitive knowledge and self-control strategies - knowledge about one's own thinking processes and factors that influence behavior, as well as the ability to control one's emotions and motivations that cause certain behavioral tendencies;

5) standards of self-evaluation, i.e. personal criteria for how worthy this or that action is.

J. Kaprara and D. Servon emphasize that the listed aspects of the "I", although they represent independent mental processes, function in a coherent manner as an integral system, forming an integrated "I-system".

Structural components of self-awareness and "I-concepts." The most common is the concept of the structure of self-consciousness or the "I-concept", in which three components are singled out: cognitive (self-knowledge), emotional-value (self-relationship), and behavioral (self-regulation).

This view of the structure of self-consciousness belongs, for example, to II Chesnokova, who notes that the listed aspects are not static structural components of self-consciousness, but its internal processes.

Cognitive substructure is a descriptive component that fixes knowledge, person's ideas about oneself. From the point of view of processuality, the cognitive generator is self-knowledge - the process of acquiring knowledge about oneself, developing and generalizing this knowledge from individual situational images. Self-knowledge is the initial link, the basis of existence and manifestation of self-consciousness. I. I. Chesnokova proposes to distinguish two levels of self-knowledge.

• At the first level, the subject correlates himself with others, the "I" and other person & quot ;. Self-perception and self-observation are the main internal methods of self-knowledge. At this level of self-knowledge, individual images of oneself and one's behavior in a particular situation are formed. As a result, some relatively stable aspects of the idea of ​​their "I" are formed, but there is still no holistic understanding of themselves.

• The second level of self-knowledge is characterized by the correlation of knowledge about oneself in the process of autocommunication, i.e. within the "I and I", when a person operates already ready-made knowledge of himself. The leading internal techniques of this level of self-knowledge are self-analysis and self-understanding. At the second level, the subject gradually develops a generalized image of his I, which, as it were, is fused from individual concrete images. I in the course of self-perception, self-observation and introspection. Through self-knowledge, a person comes to a certain knowledge of himself, that is, the result of the process of self-knowledge is a holistic "I-image."

I-image Is the cognitive component of the I-concept, to which the content of self-representations refers.

And. I. Chesnokova emphasizes that the process of self-knowledge is not smooth and uniform, devoid of contradictions. The main difficulty lies in the fact that both the subject and the object of cognition are merged, therefore subjectivism increases in the knowledge of oneself. In addition, the process of self-knowledge is characterized by some inertia. A person, firmly assimilating his own opinion of himself, "merges" with it, gets used to acting within its framework, not seeking to clarify it, moreover, resisting the course of its renewal, defending the usual idea of ​​oneself. In some cases, there is a deliberate fit facts, events under their own opinion about themselves, their biased interpretation or almost unconscious avoidance of those that are capable of shaking the habitual idea of ​​a person about themselves, as this can be experienced as a state of internal discomfort, loss of inner balance.

Representations about themselves are multifaceted. Researchers distinguish various forms of self-representations, differentiated either in the sphere of human manifestations (the "physical self", "social I", "professional self", "family I", "moral I", "spiritual self", " etc.), or in a time continuum ("I am in the past", "I'm in the present", "I'm in the future"), or on some other basis.

Example

A well-known American sociologist Maurice Rosenberg distinguishes: 1) "I'm the real I" - what a person seems to himself in reality, at the moment; 2) ideal I - Desired I & quot ;; what a person would like to be; 3) "I'm a fantastic I - what a person would like to become if everything was possible; 4) "Due to I - what should be, focusing on moral norms and social regulations; 5) the depicted I " - what a person represents, demonstrates himself to others; 6) dynamic I " - what it could be, what the goal was to become. Often, the mirror I are settings that are related to a person's views of how others perceive him.

According to M. Rosenberg's model, individual components of the "I-image" are different:

• by the degree of clarity of awareness. Some aspects of the "I" more clearly, convex are presented in consciousness, others - less distinctly, the third can in general not be realized by the person;

• by subjective significance. Those aspects of the "I" that are well understood by a person have different meanings for him, differ in the degree of their importance;

• according to cognitive complexity and differentiation, measured by the number and nature of the individual's self-perceived qualities - the more a person realizes and the more complex and generalized, the higher the level of cognitive complexity of his "I- image & quot ;;

• by consistency, sequence. The perceived traits can be logically coordinated with each other, creating a consistent self-image in general, and can in principle be incompatible or inconsistent, which determines the inconsistency, disharmony, inconsistency of the "I-image", causing internal tension, conflictability;

• for stability, defined as the stability or variability in time of the individual's representations of himself and his qualities;

• by adequacy. A person can distinguish from himself those features, abilities, qualities that are actually inherent in him, and can attribute to himself characteristics that are not characteristic of him, which determines the degree of adequacy or the inadequacy of his I-image.

Self-image can be both positive and negative. It is extremely difficult to separate the processes of self-knowledge from the evaluation processes and the emotional attitude of the person to oneself, because these components "I" are closely interrelated.

In most studies, the emotional and evaluative components of the "I-concept" they do not divide, in this case they speak about emotional self-worth. However, a number of experiments convincingly prove that self-relationship and self-esteem are not identical, therefore we will consider these components separately.

Estimated substructure reflects the subjective value attributed to your own I & quot ;. Self-evaluation is represented by the process of matching "I" or its individual parties with its own value system, with personal goals, meanings, norms and standards. Self-evaluation - is a judgment about the degree of expression or quality of any characteristic of itself, and awareness by a person, than for a certain knowledge about oneself, an awareness of its significance for oneself.

Self-esteem is a judgment about the meaning or significance of one's actions, abilities, traits or personality as a whole.

Self-evaluation is the presence of a critical position of the individual in relation to what he has, so this is not a statement of the available potential, namely his assessment from the point of view of a certain system of values, so self-evaluation answers the question: not what I have, but what does it cost, what does it mean, mean? (L. V. Borozdina.)

In the field of self-knowledge, there is a movement of knowledge about oneself from individual situational images to a more or less stable image of oneself (II Chesnokov). In the field of the evaluation sub-structure of self-consciousness, the same integrative development trend is revealed. Out of many private self-assessments of the most diverse aspects of their personality, their own actions, actions, development prospects, manifested in different situations and contexts, different activities and interactions with different people result in more or less generalized, stable, holistic self-esteem. Private self-assessments, structured into a single holistic self-assessment, interact with each other, causing a particular structure and parameters of the overall evaluation of themselves.

Traditionally, the following parameters of self-evaluation are distinguished:

height, or level (the severity of this or that quality and its subjective value);

generality (evaluation of any individual aspects of the personality, specific actions or attributing the value of his personality as a whole);

stability (stability in time);

adequacy (correctness, truthfulness);

Integrity (system, integrity)

differentiation (completeness, determined by the number of parameters to be evaluated);

depth (degree of "elaboration", reflexivity);

Awareness (openness to consciousness, or implication)

independence (the degree of exposure to the influence of some external factors).

Thus, self-esteem is a complex formation, functioning in a variety of forms and forms. One can not unequivocally answer the question of what kind of self-esteem is better: high or low, stable or dynamic, differentiated or undifferentiated. These issues are addressed in the general context of personal development and in relation to specific assessment situations. However, it is precisely from the form and form of self-esteem that the attitude of the person to himself, and also the organization's personality, of his behavior and activities largely depend. The most researched in psychology parameter of self-esteem is its height.

Psychological characteristics of people with high and low self-esteem

People with high self-esteem are quite self-confident, ready to make their own decisions and defend them when confronted with various problems; know their goals and values, are flexible enough to change them if necessary; have an optimistic view of life and a tendency to live here and now, see others as equals themselves, and themselves as equal to others; can accept both encouragement and reproaches; can be a leader or a slave, depending on the situation, are not afraid of their own feelings and are able to express them; cause sympathy among others; happy with themselves, the world and other people. People with low self-esteem have such personal traits as anxiety, depression, insecurity, dependence; they have great difficulties in interpersonal relationships, they often think that others think badly about them, they do not like them enough; they are less sociable, more likely to experience solitude, are distinguished by a lack of initiative and perseverance, are prone to volatility and hesitation; they need more approval; they work less effectively under stressful conditions or failures; in the post-stress period, they return to the initial level of performance more slowly; their professional future is threatening and gloomy and, indeed, more often they are dissatisfied with their work, as well as with all aspects of their lives. High self-esteem should not be confused with a false image of yourself, bravado, narcissism, arrogance, complacency, vanity or the desire for self-aggrandizement. Such characteristics of nc can be attributes of high (healthy) self-esteem. In fact, they are a defense against the lack of genuine self-esteem.

A high level of self-esteem alone is not enough to make it a source of a full-fledged, harmonious life, effective management of its own vital activity. To do this, self-esteem, at a minimum, must combine a number of parameters, so researchers are increasingly talking not about high self-esteem, but about healthy or optimal, do not mean low self-esteem, but weak or fragile. In general iodine healthy , optimal ) self-esteem is understood as a high, adequate, realistic, coherent, sufficiently stable, independent, but at the same time flexible self-assessment. Under weak or fragile self-esteem is understood as low or inadequately understated - overstated, dependent, internally contradictory, constantly fluctuating or, conversely, rigid self-esteem. In addition, self-esteem is optimal when the person's goals are not focused on the desire to achieve self-esteem, but on the pursuit of knowledge, personal and professional growth, the achievement of the well-being of others, and the like.

Emotional substructure. The self-image and self-evaluation are not perceived by the person neutrally, but always awaken certain feelings, the intensity of which depends on both cognitive content and social context. Emotion associated with "I" is a reaction to the value attributed to one's personality or to certain of its features and actions, a form of subjective representation of self-esteem. Self-esteem depends on an emotional attitude toward oneself, expressed in the form of different feelings and emotional states: embarrassment, vexation, shame, pride, joy, satisfaction, etc. Such emotions are often called self-evaluation.

From many experiences of the personality with respect to itself, a more or less generalized emotional attitude of the subject to himself is formed, in which the attitude to what he learns, understands, "opens" about himself (II Chesnokov). In the real functioning of self-consciousness, as many psychologists point out, it is hardly possible to divide the processes of evaluation and emotion. Self-esteem, along with self-esteem, forms what foreign psychologists refer to as the term "self-esteem", and domestic ones - "emotional-value attitude to oneself." However, in analyzing self-awareness, in order to better clarify the essential nature of its constituent processes and structural components, as well as their possible interaction and, consequently, influence on life relations and human activities, it is absolutely necessary to distinguish evaluation processes and emotions as separate ones.

Example

The facts of the divergence of self-esteem and self-esteem levels are noted by many researchers (L. V. Borozdina, V. V. Stolpi). In particular, a person in a single I-concept there may be high self-esteem (reflecting some attributed value) and low sympathy for oneself, and vice versa. For example, a person may think that he has a "terrible" character, that he is poorly educated, that he is generally worthless, but at the same time to love oneself ( Yes, I'm a bad person, but I like myself "). There may be another situation: a person believes that he is successful, competent, he has something to value and respect for himself, but he is opposed to himself. Moreover, a decrease in overall self-esteem is often accompanied by an increase in autosympathy as a compensatory mechanism. Thus, having formed, self-relationship can exist and relatively independent of the overall self-assessment, causing a complex relationship between these components of self-consciousness - the relationship of harmony, harmony or complementarity, and, on the contrary, disharmony, inconsistency, conflict.

Behavioral substructure is the internal actions of self-regulation and self-control, in a potential behavioral response that can be caused by self-image, self-esteem and an emotional attitude towards oneself. The Regulatory Role of the I-Concept is aimed at protecting, maintaining and developing one's own personality.

The English psychologist Robert Burns distinguishes three basic functions of the "I-concept". In his opinion, "I-concept":

1) contributes to the achievement of internal consistency of personality, determines how a person will act in a given situation;

2) leaves an imprint on the social judgments and attitudes of the person, determines the interpretation of experience, in particular how a person interprets the actions of others;

3) determines the expectations of the individual, i.e. his idea of ​​what should happen.

Consider the effect of these regulatory functions in more detail.

• i-concept determines the strategy of human behavior aimed at maintaining his self-image and self-esteem. Inconsistent images I become a source of stress, forcing a person to seek a way to eliminate the emerging contradiction. Researchers identify several ways to protect a certain idea of ​​yourself and the level of self-esteem. First of all, they relate to the relationship of the subject with other people. In particular, a person can selectively approach the formation of a circle of acquaintances, preferring to communicate with those whose behavior and assessments do not contradict his "I-image"; To discredit those whose opinions and opinions do not coincide with his concept of himself; to downplay the success of others to win in the "competition" (model they are no better than me ); subjectively interpret, manipulate the facts relating to the contradictory "I-image" information. I-concept can be protected in other ways.

Examples of defensive strategies

Embellishing yourself in areas that lie outside the zone of actual self-manifestation - one of the ways to protect "I". For example, a student, realizing that peer evaluation of his academic successes or sports achievements is not very high, begins to exaggerate his virtues in those areas that can not be controlled by them (manifested courage during the summer holidays, success in any courses, etc.) ).

The so-called false modesty can also act as a defense mechanism. The goal of such emphatic self-abasement is to achieve soothing social "strokes". One of the manifestations of the phenomenon of false modesty is that a person often demonstrates a lower self-esteem, a more negative "I-image" than he feels in the depths of his soul. Indeed, we often hear from others: "I do not know anything, absolutely stupid, I do not remember anything nc as if I were passing this exam" or "I'm so scary, terribly fat, I'm not getting anything" etc. This is usually followed by the expected assurances in the opposite: "No, well, you! You all know, you know ... You look great ". etc. In such a strange way a person can not only protect his self-esteem and the "I-image", but also to achieve the strengthening of his "I" Another protective strategy can be the manipulation of the parameters for which a person evaluates himself and others.

The more positive an individual evaluates any of his characteristics (mental ability, courage, sense of humor, etc.), the more he uses them as a basis for judgments about others. It is also possible to vary the significance of one's qualities, abilities, or abilities in areas of competence or incompetence (increasing them in the first and minimizing them in the second) or varying the significance of the areas of assessment themselves.

Protecting your I-concept occurs and by means of obstacles, which the person to himself creates. Such self-barriers can protect self-esteem in two ways. In case of failure, a person can protect his self-esteem by attributing failure to obstacles, i. creating a suitable justification for a possible failure ( I did not make much effort & quot ;, I had no time to prepare ). In case of success, a person can support (increase) his self-esteem, attributing success to himself, despite the emerging obstacles, i.e. The importance of success increases due to existing barriers.

Two motivations follow from the motive to support and increase self-esteem, pointed out by the American psychologist David Myers: a reassessment of the breadth of the prevalence of one's own opinions and shortcomings (false consensus) and an underestimation of the breadth of other people's abilities and virtues , which the person himself has ( false uniqueness). Simply put, people consider their shortcomings as the norm, and their virtues as a rarity.

For socio-psychological research, I the behavioral component of the "I-concept", as a rule, is expressed by the concept of self-presentation (self-feeding).

Example

The famous American psychologist Roy Baumeister singled out two strategies for self-presentation:

1) the appealing strategy is governed by the criteria accepted in the given audience, it is aimed at exposing itself in a favorable light (adjusting to the audience) and getting a "reward";

2) self-constructing strategy is aimed at maintaining and strengthening the "ideal I", i.e. follows from the desire to impress others with those qualities that are included in the "ideal I" subject.

People with low and high self-esteem use different self-regulation strategies. In the situation of the threat of their own "I-concepts" people with high self-esteem apply the strategy of self-elevation (self-aggrandizement), increasing the value and value of their positive qualities and considering their weaknesses insignificant (literally: "Let me not get this job, but I'm handsome, I have good friends, I perfectly play the guitar etc.). People with a low level of self-esteem are not able to minimize the importance of their shortcomings, weaknesses, they "get stuck" on their failures and misses. In addition, they have fewer self-esteem resources (ie, positive qualities, abilities, etc., that could be attracted in case of failure), so in a situation of threat to one's own "I" they often use the defensive strategy, often - the strategy of "belittling others" ("I'm so-so, but you (he) is absolutely terrible"),

• i-concept defines how a person will perceive, evaluate and interpret the actions of other people. Two people, faced with the same event, can perceive it in completely different ways, and this largely depends on their "I" -concepts .

Example

So, when a teacher praises a teenager with high self-esteem, he thinks: "Yes, I really deserved it, I am worthy of praise, I am proud of myself." When praise is addressed to a teenager with low self-esteem, the reaction may be quite different: "I'm completely stupid if I'm praised for such trifles" or "the teacher especially specially praises me so that everyone is finally convinced that I'm not capable of anything."

I-concept determines the expectations of the individual, ie. his idea of ​​what should happen.

Example

Children who tend to worry about their successes at school are often told: "I know I will be a total fool" or "I know I will write this control badly." Increased anxiety, anticipation of failure, lack of belief in one's own abilities do often lead to the fact that such a child is worse coping with control work and this only strengthens him in his low self-esteem. Thus, the mechanism of self-fulfilling prophecy works. This is also confirmed in experimental studies: people who consider themselves hardworking and prosperous are better at coping with a difficult task than those who consider themselves to be losers.

The result of self-regulation processes, if we consider the structure of the "I-concept", nc may be the actual behavior of a person, since it is not contained within it: the personality, the subject, and not his "I-conception". In our opinion, self-regulation, or the behavioral component of self-consciousness, called this way, because it determines the organization of one's own behavior and activities more than other components, can be expressed through addressing to the phenomenon of self-efficacy. This is the first time this the phenomenon was described by the American psychologist Albert Bandura (1925-1988).

Self-efficacy is a person's perception of his ability to successfully act in a given situation, his belief in the effectiveness of his actions and the expectation of success from their implementation.

Self-efficacy is a sense of one's own competence in one or another activity, a judgment about one's abilities and capabilities, and not judgments about one's own worth. A. Bandura is not understood as a stable and static characteristic, but as a variable that is in mutual dependence on the actual situation and the history of the individual's development.

Example

A number of studies have established that efficiency expectations correlate with actual behavior. The idea of ​​own effectiveness has a significant impact on many aspects of human activity, determining the level of effort, perseverance, the choice of tasks of a certain degree of difficulty, success in activities, emotional experiences. In other words, a person mainly demonstrates the behavior that he himself expects of himself, and sees exactly the consequences that he is waiting for. A person who doubts his efficiency, tries to avoid difficulties, throws up business, faces problems, and experiences anxiety; a person who is convinced of his efficiency has higher claims, is more persistent in achieving goals, more confident in their implementation.

Thus, self-consciousness is a unity of the process of self-knowledge, self-evaluation, emotional experiences and self-regulation, and the "I-concept" appears as a set of representations of a person about oneself and includes beliefs, assessments, emotions and the expected effectiveness of one's own actions. The process of self-consciousness and its result - I-concept are schematically shown in Fig. 6.1.

Process and result of self-awareness

Fig. 6.1. Process and result of self-awareness

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