Keywords: rebt way, dibs self help, self esteem therapy
She has being in the same company for days gone by 15 years and was lately marketed to a managerial position, following a completion of her first level. Since assuming her new position, she's become very troubled about her capacity to operate in her new capacity. She's been sensing lethargic and struggles to get up each day to visit work. The position requires her using computer systems more than she once was accustomed and despite the fact that she has been through training, she feels incompetent especially in the preparation of reports. She feels unsure in what she wants regarding her life and feels that she is bad at anything. She doubts dropping her job because she seems, she'll not be capable of geting another job therefore would not be able to care for the family.
Robin has low self-esteem resulting from her misuse as a kid. She has always thought that she was never smart and hasn't achieved much in her life. She does not feel that she actually is particularly good at anything and this has led to her having only average success in life.
Information to be obtained in the initial meeting
- A- implies the activating event/experience
- B- represents how the person believes (rational or irrational) about A
- C behavioural and psychological a reaction to B
- D- disrupting (challenging) the irrational notion and replacing them
- E- effective thoughts and maybe a new philosophy that will help the client achieve great life satisfactions
Based on the information Robin needs a therapeutic process that is brief 5-15 treatment and the one that will give quick, but permanent results.
I would check into the type of her concerns that triggered her to seek counselling help (Dryden 2004 p. 30). This would bring about her informing her storyline (a listing of which is provided above).
Ascertain the client's sense about therapy, and based on her response we'd explore her thoughts further to get rid of any misconceptions through psycho education (Curwen, 2005, p. 61)
Discuss what she would be prepared to achieve from therapy (Dryden, 2004 p. 30). after which I would have her identify what she considers to be the primary problems and choose the the one which she would like to focus on first. Based on her response a talk may ensue, if my examination recognizes a presenting problem that needs priority over the one Robin has picked.
Gather information on the Robin's demographic, physical and mental history
Robin would also be provided with the best consent form, which would describe ethical aspect of conducting the psychotherapy process and offer information on the length and cost of lessons. Clarification would be provided for any queries lifted.
Propose treatment approach
Based on the info gathered, I would determine Robin as experiencing work anxiety. I'd decide that she's no meta-emotional problems that would negatively have an impact on the problems picked. Dryden (2004) meta-emotional problems are psychological problems about mental problems such as being ashamed of sense anxious. Because of this we would decide to work on the problems discovered by Robin in the first period namely anxiousness and fear.
Developing a healing alliance
Agreeing to focus on the problems identified individually. We'd agree to focus on her nervousness first. Inside our second reaching, Robin would be asked to describe/recount situations at the job that may be linked to her thoughts of panic. Ascertain how about the problem is stress and anxiety provoking for her. Based on her recount it might be highlighted that she had submitted two information late anticipated to issues with doing the report in Excel. She doubts this could occur again and show that she is incompetent. Robin accepted that her fear of using Excel leads to her postponing working on the report until it's important. She actually is also irritated with herself because she seems she is slow as she still discovers its challenging to make use of Excel after obtaining training, she seems stupid and worthless.
Teaching the B-C connection and assessing irrational beliefs. I'd show Robin that she has depreciating thoughts/beliefs about herself such as being incompetent and slow-moving (B) which her feelings of anger/nervousness is the mental response (C) to her beliefs. Also explain that B and C are connected to her critical A which is her subjective account of the upsetting facet of the situation (i. e. failing to complete her records promptly)
- If she loses her job she will not be able to get another one
- Her troubles with excel means that she is incompetent and stupid
- If she submits another article late she'll lose her job
The goal of the process is to show Robin that her irrational thoughts are self-defeating and goal blocking. Once Robin reveals that she comprehends the bond between her thoughts/values and her mental response and producing behaviour we would move unto the process of disputing her irrational beliefs. I would utilize Socratic questioning to struggle her irrational beliefs.
Based on the problems Robin is experiencing two immediate goals are
- improving her proficiency in Excel
- reduce her irrational thoughts.
Robin would be trained problem fixing skills and techniques that could help her to beat the sensible adversities is experiencing at the job. Robin must succeed at the job and while she might not lose her job over the difficulties being experienced in using Excel, she needs to feel better about herself, reduce her work panic and her anger. After deciding, that she needs to work on increasing her skills in Excel we would explore alternate strategies that would be used, determining the resources and support she would need to attain her goals (Nelson-Jones, 2006, p. 324). Therefore, to meet this goal Robin would; on a regular basis practice for 1 hour using Excel, (she currently has a template, which she inherited). Specifically she is to work on reconstructing the template bit by bit to boost her understanding and proficiency. She also would identify a source of information person who would be accessible to aid her whenever she has difficulties. It could also be chose that she would focus on her monthly survey weekly to reduce the likelihood of a late distribution and decrease the stresses that Robin is having in organizing the survey within a short time frame. Furthermore, she would be instructed to work with rational coping assertions such as "I could accomplish this process" and visualizing herself efficiently performing her process to encourage her (Nelson-Jones, 2006, p. 324).
Preparing Reminder cards - using analysis cards to record rational assertions and replicate them many times daily between consultations (Nelson-Jones, 2006, p. 323)
- the beliefs that needs to be disputed
- whether the belief can be rationally supported
- existing data for the belief
- existing evidence up against the belief
- the most detrimental that can happen to the average person if they ever achieved what they wished to in respect of that belief
- good things that may happen if they never achieved what they wished to achieve (Dryden & Ellis cited in Nelson -Jones, 2006, p. 323)
Robin would be asked to provide reviews on the homework assigned in the beginning of each procedure. The reviews would include submitting copies of the completed self-help forms for discussion, reporting on the consistency of use of the rest cards, confirming on the improvement of the Excel practice sessions and the regular changes of her monthly report. The goal of this would be to give attention to what she has learned or didn't learn between periods so that blocks to the learning process can be tackled (Nelson-Jones, 2006, p. 323). This might help her internalize a new and effective approach to considering, which, should lead to new emotional effects.
- The strategy is clear, easily discovered and effective.
- The approach can be easily combined with other behavioural techniques to help clients more totally experience what they are learning
- The way is relatively short-term and customer may continue steadily to use the procedure on a self applied- help basis.
These strengths is seen in the use of REBT to Robin's circumstance where Robin easily comprehended the B-C connection and the use of disputing. Desensitization (behavioural approach) will be used to help Robin confront her worries about using Excel. The use of homework between lessons will help to develop Robin's self-help techniques to support her efforts to change independent of the therapy trainings.
The therapeutic way, however, places little focus on exploring the past despite receiving that it can affect current behavior. This evidenced in the failing to explore Robin's child years abuse. Exploration of the happenings can help Robin to get a better understanding of her thoughts and action and package with the stress experienced.
The Consulting Psychologist is likely to be skilled in addressing issues at the organizational, group and specific level. Lowman (2002) summarized the expected competencies of the consulting psychologist in the individual domain as "skilled in performing assessments and interventions centered on persons as individual entities in organisational work contexts. The consulting psychologist is likely to have the data, skills, and abilities to determine and intervene with individuals in non scientific work and job related contexts also to have the ability to identify situations requiring assessment or intervention with abnormal internal conditions and those with the more normal range of behaviour".
In conducting work at the average person level, the psychologist can perform the function of the executive instructor. Lowman (2002) identifies executive training as a "formal, ongoing romance between an individual or team having managerial power and responsibility in an company and a expert who possess knowledge of behaviour change and organizational functioning. The relationship gets the goal of fabricating measurable habit change in the individual or collection of individuals that cause increased specific or organizational performance". There is absolutely no specific requirement for the utilization of counseling theories in the executive coaching process, but the theories can be applied to effect the required changes. The use of behavioural counseling theories in executive instruction is illustrated using the situation of Dan.
The behaviorism procedure seeks to improve specific thinking habits and particular thoughts. The concentration is on the mindful thinking as opposed to the unconscious process predicated on the idea that changing habitual means of thinking has a powerful influence on both thoughts and behavior (Peltier cited in Brunning, 2007, p. 18).
Dan is a 32-year-old newly promoted audit director in the internal audit division. He has worked hard over the years as an auditor but is uncomfortable along with his new leadership obligations. The Audit Partner complains that he does not have a strong presence in audit meetings and it is not assertive. The Audit Spouse is self-assured of Dan's technical knowledge, but is concerned about his potential for further growth in the company if he does not change; he believes coaching may help Dan.
The executive mentor runs on the 360-degree evaluation to obtain information from Dan's manager of what contributed to his conception of Dan (Peltier, 2001, p. 59). The analysis shows that the seats chosen, the way he sits, his tone of voice, lack of vision contact and insufficient contribution to meetings, are what has generated this understanding. The results of the analysis will show that Dan's behaviour must be changed. This may be achieved by concentrating on his activities and the resulting feelings. Dan signifies that he feels intimidated by the partners and is uneasy due to his age, in comparison with his peers and superiors. He was frightened of making flaws, which would suggest that he had not been prepared for this degree of responsibility and his present actions (i. e. when he rests, not adding to meetings) are aimed at making him inconspicuous. A tape of will be produced of a spouse/managers meeting and this along with the results of the 360 degree analysis will be discussed with Dan and goals agreed. An alteration plan and an idea of action will be implemented, which will include practice tapes of Dan speaking up and making tips, in mock conferences, making word of his firmness, how he sits and makes eye contact (Peltier, 2001, p. 60). On top of that through discussions, progress will be produced in changing Dan negative/irrational thoughts about himself and his work situation that is adversely affecting his behaviour. The feedback that will be provided will help Dan to see the areas that needs modification. The practice sessions will allow him to feel more confident and comfortable with the changes. Among the first checks will be getting Dan to change where he rests and this will be done during the period of the first 5 lessons. By the end of the 20 classes, Dan should improve his talk, posture, eyes contact and contribution to meetings. His self-confidence should develop generally because of the support from the coach and the positive responses he should receive from his peers and superiors.
Another program of counseling theories by the consulting psychologist is group or team development. Team development addresses attaining cohesiveness and encouraging members to act as integrated full in order to become more fruitful (Boyce, 2004, p. 3). Koortzen and Cilliers cited in Lowman (2002) indicated the view that talking to psychologists have to have understanding of cognitive-behavioral, humanistic and psychoanalytic subconscious approaches to be able to apply them to group and team development. The approach applied would be reliant on the types of problems being experienced by the group. Predicated on the problems, the theory models, assumptions, technique and techniques of the particular approach would be employed to achieve the desire results.
The cognitive-behavioral methodology may be more suitable for situations in which the group dysfunctional behaviour results form self-defeating actions and an inability to help make the essential behavioral changes. The humanistic way would be used to facilitate the introduction of interpersonal skills or even to instruct relationship-building skills where a lack of interpersonal level of sensitivity, realness or empathy is out there. The psychoanalytic procedure would be utilized if the team presents mindful and unconscious conflicts, problematic relationships can be found with leaders or authority statistics and there is difficulty in understanding self applied and collective nervousness. Koortzen and Cilliers cited in Lowman (2002) further mentioned that consultants not trained in psychodynamic approaches to groups and organizations often felt ineffective and uninformed in vibrant organizational situations such as conferences and team improvements.
The psychoanalytic method of team development treatment uses several models. The usage of the psychoanalytic methodology is reviewed in the next scenario.
ABC Ltd is a tiny consulting firm had and founded by Bob. He's experiencing issues with his management team. He seems that although he has appointed some of the brightest persons, they aren't providing enough support and though he has empowered these to make decisions, they appear incapable of doing so. As a result, he still must make all the decision. This has resulted in Bob feeling troubled about the future of the business enterprise.
As area of the consulting process, the expert will accumulate data and review assessment data in order to diagnose the situation facing the group (Wheelan, 2005, p. 436). The advisor would then use Bion theory to diagnose the situation. Bion argues that in every group, two communities are in reality present: the task group, and the essential assumption group. The task group is that facet of group functioning which has regarding the primary activity of the group - what the group has shaped to accomplish. The basic assumption group represents the tacit primary assumptions on which the behavior of the group is based. Bion specifically identified three basic assumptions: dependency, fight-flight, and pairing. Whenever a group adopts any one of the basic assumptions, it interferes with the task the group is wanting to attain (Wikipedia, par. 20). Based on Bion theory Bob's management team appears to have implemented the dependency assumption. Dependency organizations are seen as a members, which desire to be protected by one individual, usually the leader. The group's action implies that the leader is all knowing and all-powerful, and this group users are ignorant, insufficient and immature. The intelligence and electric power of the leader should never be questioned or analyzed by the group (Minahan & Hutton, 2004). Interventions by means of team development workshop can used to provide members an opportunity to study their behavior.
Based on the above mentioned discussions it sometimes appears that counseling theories can be applied to the work of the consulting psychologist in his role as an executive coach dealing with individuals and with clubs/groups.
In addition to making use of counseling theories to individuals and categories, the consulting psychologist engages in counseling with regards to work-based issues such as performance, work romance, career development and grief guidance. In executing these counseling functions, the consulting psychologist needs to use his knowledge to ascertain if clients need other varieties of treatment. Brunnings (2007) expresses "if your client personality appears to be the crucial element in just how he/she does their current organisational role or was the key reason behind consistent conflicts at work then psychotherapy may be needed. In case a repeated theme e. g. damage has been recognized and is known as to be needed for the client to handle then, perhaps counseling may be appropriate". In both instances cited, the Consulting Psychologist would refer the individuals for treatment but wouldn't normally actually counsel the people or conduct psychotherapy.
Further Lowman (2002) mentioned "consulting psychologist specific level evaluation skills do not normally include analysis of unusual personality or mental dysfunction except to the extent that the consulting psychologist is likely to be able to distinguish the needs of individuals whose characteristics may require a different kind of involvement (e. g. recommendation for a formal mental health analysis or treatment)". Also he mentioned that "although consulting psychologists should know about and in a position to apply a range of counseling theories and methods, they are not necessarily likely to anticipate to conduct mental health treatment with clients. Rather, consulting psychologist send such clients to correctly prepared fellow workers when they imagine such care is essential".
The ensuing conversations have highlighted the actual fact that the counseling theories are highly relevant to the practice of the consulting psychologist. The usage of counseling theories in executive instruction is considered a grey area, which could present an overlap between consulting and counseling psychologist. Kampa and White cited in Lowman (2002) argued that the designed outcomes of both psychotherapy and exec instruction are behavioral change. The actual fact that the behavior change searched for in executive instruction targets change as it pertains to effective performance within the organizational or work framework is probably not especially important, because changes in one sphere of a person's life will most probably impact in other spheres. Despite these concerns the relevance of guidance theories to the consulting practice cannot be denied, however the consulting psychologist must be led by the led by the honest competency suggestions of the career.
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