Independent study of literature, preparation of students for studies in psychology and examinations
Psychology education also includes independent work of students and students, the main functions of which in the educational process are as follows:
1) the consolidation of psychological knowledge and skills studied in classroom and classroom work
2) expanding and deepening knowledge of certain topics;
3) mastering the skills of using this knowledge for solving applied problems;
4) mastering the skills of psychological research;
5) mastering the skills of practical psychological work
6) mastering the skills of self-knowledge and self-development.
Independent study of teaching aids, primary sources
and abstracts can be used in different situations of academic work of students and schoolchildren:
1) in lessons, seminars, workshops,
2) when preparing for lectures, seminars, practical exercises;
3) when preparing abstracts, course papers and diploma papers;
4) when preparing for exams and tests.
The task of teaching students the skills of searching for literature, meaningful reading, developing the skills of understanding psychological texts seems to be topical. Many students persist in avoiding the use of library services. One of the reasons is that they do not know how to use them, they do not know how to search for publications on a topic. Difficulties are caused by reading with understanding. Recall that the greatest difficulties for students is the study of scientific monographs and articles, which, unlike teaching aids, are not adapted for educational purposes and the corresponding category of students and students. Faced with a complex for the perception of the style of the scientific text, some students experience significant difficulties in understanding it and therefore limit themselves to the mechanical memorization of formulations. In this regard, an important task of the teacher is to use assignments that help students develop appropriate reading skills. It can be, for example:
- tasks to compile a detailed structured section plan;
- tasks for free (without reliance on the abstract) retelling of the section of the text;
- search for answers to questions pre-assigned to the text;
- answers to specific questions on the section, aimed at identifying the understanding of the basic concepts, the ability to compare, analyze, synthesize, generalize;
- tasks to formulate separate thoughts of the text in another stylistic and syntactic form;
- drawing up a short summary of the text;
- compilation of a basic graphic diagram of the section with textual explanations;
- writing a summary of the text read.
Writing an abstract of the article, as noted above, is a fairly typical task that the teacher gives students in preparation for the seminar, a practical lesson, a lesson. It is assumed that the review helps to think through the source. Of course, this is true, but not always. In many cases, students simply rewrite fragments of the text, limited to its surface processing, for example, omitting introductory words and phrases with general reasoning. The students' answers at seminars on such abstracts sometimes reveal a weak understanding of the essence of concepts, theoretical positions and their connection with empirical facts.
Another reason for the outlines is the teacher's desire to make sure that the text is read. However, students often rewrite abstracts from comrades, so the meaning of the assignment is lost.
In order for abstracting primary sources to perform cognitive function, students should be trained in appropriate skills, including:
- the selection of essential information and its separation from the background;
- lexical and syntactic processing of the text;
- schematization and structuring of the material read;
- the formulation of the summary of the material read.
In this case, note-taking will contribute to a meaningful mastery of knowledge.
Self-reading in preparation for lectures, seminars and practical exercises. Self-preparation of the student for the lecture should consist in the first reading of the abstract of the previous lecture. This helps to better understand the material of the new lecture, relying on previous knowledge. Unfortunately, this is done only by a few students who have developed the ability to self-organize. Stimulating the reading of the abstract of the previous lecture can be the regular practice of the teacher conducting an oral or written express questionnaire of students on its content at the beginning of the next lecture.
Self-preparation for a seminary and practical lesson consists in reading the summary of the lecture, in reading the corresponding section of the textbook and primary sources. The main tasks of this training are:
- the repetition of theoretical knowledge, assimilated within the framework of the classroom work
- expanding and deepening knowledge about the topic of the lesson.
Knowledge gained in the process of such independent work,
are the theoretical basis for discussing the issues of seminar classes, performing laboratory work or a practical task.
In this regard, there is another urgent question: what should be the volume of tasks for training? As noted above, some teachers come from the principle of "the more the better." This does not take into account the factor of possible overload of students. In addition, the need to read more leads to a reduction in the depth of reflection of each section. Perhaps it is more expedient to read less, but critically comprehend the reading, the more, by limiting ourselves to only a superficial understanding.
The ratio of study time allocated for classroom and independent lessons in the academic discipline is determined in the curriculum of the relevant educational programs. Most often, the proportion of both types of educational work is determined in a ratio of 50% to 50% (perhaps a slightly different ratio). Thus, the length of the student's preparation for the seminar should roughly correspond to the duration of the seminar itself, i.e. be two academic hours (or in some cases a little more). With an average student reading speed of 20 pages per hour, it turns out that the preparation for the seminar should consist in the study of no more than 40-50 pages of primary sources. Of course, different students read and outline at different rates. These individual features are difficult to take into account.The content of preparing students for a seminar or a practical lesson can be not only reading literature, but also selecting examples, illustrative material on certain issues, conducting simple psychological experiments, describing the results of observation and introspection, solving psychological problems. This can contribute to the productive organization of the instructor's lesson.
Homework of students in school. With the general principles of organization and types of independent work in school education can be found on the textbooks of pedagogy. Homework on psychology can be used when working with students in schools, lyceums, gymnasiums. However, its volume should be small, and the content - interesting. To avoid excessive learning overload in the teaching of psychology, compulsory homework is not recommended, especially in cases where psychology is taught as an optional subject. As homework assignments you can recommend:
1) selection of illustrative material;
2) an account of the results of observations and self-observation of students;
3) small abstracts.
Many exercises for introspection and introspection that can be used as homework can be found in the work of EA Klimov.
Preparing students for tests and exams is an important form of independent learning activities, it allows you to systematize the knowledge and skills you have gained. The teaching practice of setting exams and tests "automatic", without generalizing control, test, test or examination papers, deprives students of the opportunity to repeat, summarize and systematize their knowledge of the section of the course or discipline in general.
How to make preparation for exams more effective? Here are some of the most common tips that are given to students and schoolchildren.
1. Getting ready for the exams, it is useful to make a plan. Making a plan for each day, you need to clearly define what exactly you will study today. At the same time, generalized formulations like "A little work out" should be avoided. You should specify which sections you will be working on today.
2. It is useful to determine who you are - the owl or lark & quot; - and depending on this, the most to load the morning or, conversely, evening hours.
3. Of course, it is good to start with the most difficult, i.e. from the section that you knowingly know the worst. But it also happens that you do not want to be engaged, nothing goes into your head - as they say, "no mood". In that case it is useful to start with what you know better, from the material that is most interesting and enjoyable to you. Perhaps, gradually you will enter the necessary rhythm of work and will be able to move to more difficult sections.
4. It is useful to alternate work and rest. Breaks are best done after completing the study of any part of the training material, about every hour. Breaks are best not to delay, but try to make them active. It is possible at this time to wash the dishes, water the flowers, make exercises.
5. Preparing for the exam, do not try to read and memorize the entire textbook. It is useful to repeat the material on the issues. After reading the question, remember and necessarily briefly write down everything that you know from it, and only then check yourself according to the textbook. Pay special attention to the subheadings of the chapter or section of the textbook, the rules and the selected text. Check the correctness of dates, basic facts. Only after this, carefully, slowly read the textbook, highlighting the main thoughts - the key points of the answer. It must always be remembered that your task is not to memorize, but to understand the material, so concentrate on the key thoughts.
6. When preparing for exams, it is useful to structure the material, drawing up a plan, schemes, and it is obligatory to do it not in mind, but on paper. This fixation is very important. Plans are also useful because they are easy to use for short repetition of the material and even sometimes directly when answering the exams.
7. At the end of each day of preparation, you should check how you learned the material: again, briefly write down the plans for answering all the questions that were worked out on that day.
8. Answers to the most difficult questions completely, expand to your mother, friend, anyone who wants to listen, and try to do it as required in the exams. It's very good to record the answer to the tape recorder, and then listen to yourself as if from outside. Before the oral exam it is good to try to answer the most difficult questions, standing in front of the mirror (preferably so that you can see yourself fully grown), paying attention to the posture, gestures, facial expression. Why should this be done? In psychology it is established that the more significant the differences in the states of a person at the moment when he receives information (prepares for the exam) and reproduces it (passes the exam), the more difficult it is for him to extract information from memory. Prepare usually at home, sitting, or even lying, in a relaxed atmosphere, relaxed, and answering the exam, a person experiences stress, excitement. When you state the answer or record it on a tape recorder, you bring these two together. It is also important that we are talking about ourselves differs from speech out loud: the first is short, concise. When retelling the answer, you include a memory that helps to answer not in the internal language but in the public language. Only then does it become clear what aspects of the material you have learned firmly.
9. If, at some point in preparing for the exams, you begin to feel that it is impossible to learn and you can never remember everything that is required, think about how much information on this subject you have already learned, be aware of where you are and how much you still have to go through to master all the material. Only it is necessary to do it as precisely as possible. Do not act with the words: "Oh, moms, I do not know anything" or I will not be able to do anything anyway, so is not it better to quit it? ". You need to separate the easy or comparatively easy questions and topics for you from those that you consider to be your main problem, and then focus on what you need to learn, as if to bridge the bridge between what you know and what you do not know.
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