The development of a person undergoes several phases of development, which change and replace one another respectively to the cognitive development of the average person. At exactly the same time, the development of individual mindset and personality is a subject to heat debates between specialists for a long time. In this respect, Piaget's developmental theory enjoyed an extremely important role in the forming of views of scientists and experts on the individual development. Piaget was main researchers, who laid the building blocks to the developmental theories. His theoretical assumptions contributed to the introduction of new developmental ideas by such scientists as Kohlberg and Erikson. In this respect, it's important to lay focus on the fact that Piaget's developmental theory described the platform of other developmental theories and helped the researchers to give attention to key issues of the development of an individual. Alternatively, new developmental theories developed by researchers after Piaget brought in new ideas and theoretical concepts which extended the developmental theory of Piaget and broadened the view of modern scientists on the personal development. So, developmental theories developed by different researchers, such as Kohlberg and Erikson have a whole lot of similarities because they are grounded on key concepts produced by Piaget but, at the same time, they maintain certain dissimilarities because each researcher brings in his / her own new ideas and ideas to the developmental theory, which identified the essence of the development of individual predicated on the close connection between cognitive, physical and mental development of a person.
Key ideas of theories
Piaget is one of the founding fathers of the developmental theory and his theoretical advancements laid the building blocks to the present day developmental theory. In such a context, key principles of his theory are of the utmost importance for understanding of the modern day developmental theories. In this respect, version is one of the main element theoretical concepts developed by Piaget. The version implies adapting to the world through assimilation and accommodation (Atherton, 2010). Actually, the adaptation is an essential theoretical concepts since it implies that each individual passes through different levels of the individual development that requires the adaptation of a person to new changes and levels in his or her interpersonal environment as well as subconscious and personal development of the average person. The adaptation consists of the assimilation of a person to his or her new environment and cognitive development and accommodation, which signifies the introduction of new skills, talents and types of behavior.
Furthermore, Piaget strains the role of maturation (simply growing up) in children's increasing capacity to comprehend their world: they can not undertake certain jobs until they are psychologically adult enough to do so (Atherton, 2010). In most cases, this means that the maturation is essential for the development of a child however the maturation occurs through learning how to execute different tasks and emotional development. Quite simply, the maturation occurs through the physical and psychological development of a kid which also will involve the cognitive development and their interaction leads to the constant maturation of an individual.
At once, Piaget argues that children's thinking will not develop entirely well: instead, there are specific points of which it "will take off" and steps into new areas and functions (Atherton, 2010). Actually, the cognitive development of children occurs through sizeable changes which might appear unexpectedly to a kid respectively to his or her environment and personal development. What is meant here is the fact that a child can reach certain point in his / her personal development, when she or he wants to change his / her habits and tendencies, to try something new in his / her life. This is often where in fact the acquisition of the new experience occurs.
Kohlberg done his developmental theory using Piaget's theory as the basis on the floor which he developed his own theory. He arranged with Piaget that the introduction of an individual goes by through certain periods. At the same time, he argued that levels are not the product of maturation, i. e. the level structures and sequences do not only unfold matching to a genetic blueprint (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2000). What is meant here is the fact that the development of a child will not occur on the ground of some hereditary code as an inborn trait of an individual. Instead, the level constructions and sequences are dependant on the moral and internal development of a person which means that if one has not come to certain level of the development than he or she hasn't elaborated certain types of behavior, mental experience and moral norms and ideals.
At the same time, Kohlberg argues that socializing providers (e. g. , parents and educators) do in a roundabout way teach new kinds of pondering (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2000). Kohlberg stands on the ground that the impact of exterior factors on the average person development shouldn't be overestimated because parents, teachers, peers and other socializing brokers somewhat create conditions for learning new kinds of thinking but it is up to an individual to learn new varieties of thinking. Quite simply, learning new types of thinking is inside rather than exterior process, in terms of Kohlberg's theory.
In this regard, another key theory in Kohlberg's theory is particularly important. To put it more specifically, he lays focus on the actual fact that the phases emerge, instead, from individual's own considering moral problems (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2000). At this time, it is worth mentioning the actual fact that Kolberg pays a particular focus on the moral development and solution of problems as a travelling force of the personal development of a person. Which means that every individual solves his / her moral problems on his / her own and it is through the solution of the moral problems a person grows adult and moves through different stages in his or her personal development.
Erikson carried on the work on the developmental ideas began by his precursors, such as Piaget. At exactly the same time, Erikson developed his own take on the introduction of an individual. At this time, it will probably be worth mentioning the fact that Erikson's developmental theory signifies the close interaction between inner and external world of a person. In actuality, this means that a person is vulnerable to the impact of his or her communal environment as well as emotional and moral development of a person. In this admiration, it is specially noteworthy to say the actual fact that, relating to Erikson the ego is out there from birth and that patterns is not totally defensive (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2007). Ego is one of the key principles in his developmental theory which is through the introduction of an individual ego a person develops and advances in psychological, physical and cognitive domains.
At once, the massive influence of culture on behavior and positioned more focus on the exterior world, such as depressive disorder and wars (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2007). So, Erikson inclines to the externalization of the procedure of the development of an individual. In such a way, the impact of external factors on the personal development is very significant to the scope which it can determine certain characteristics of personality and types of behavior of an individual.
Eventually, Erikson lays emphasis on the actual fact that the course of development depends upon the discussion of your body (genetic biological encoding), brain (mental health), and cultural (ethos) influences (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2007). Actually, this is the core concept of Erikson's theory. Erikson stands on the ground that the average person development occurs through the connection of several factors, your body, mind and ethnical factors, which lead to the formation of an individual's personality.
Major tips of similarity
On analyzing theories produced by Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson, you'll be able to trace significant similarities between them. At this time, it is worth mentioning the actual fact that similarities between your three ideas are, to a substantial extent, dependant on the theoretical construction created by Piaget, which became the basis for later developmental theories. Actually, Piaget's theoretical ideas became the main for later developmental theories. The development of individuals occur through periods of the personal development, which may vary depending over a theorist but, in process, they imply that each individual moves through certain group of stages which are crucial for the maturation of a person and which all individuals go through throughout their life.
At the same time, the maturation proper is not the essence of the non-public development. In fact, Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson agree that the maturation will not define the introduction of children, instead they study from the public experience, psychological development and so forth. In this regard, it is necessary to consider multiple factors that affect the personal development of individuals. These factors can vary greatly depending on a theorist but all, Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson agree that each individual passes through the phases of development, which they identified in their theory. The impact of social environment, moral development and psychological development of an individual resulted in the steady progress of a person in his or her cognitive development.
On the other hand, all the three scientists agree that the level of the development is not associated with certain age strictly but, in every individual case, the development of an individual moves through each periods although the exact age of which an individual gets into a stage can vary greatly, for several weeks as a rule. What is designed here is the fact that an individual can go into a new level in his / her personal development faster or sooner than others. Enough time, when a person enters certain stage in his or her personal development, is described by his / her cognitive development, interpersonal experience, moral development and other factors, which impact the introduction of a person as described by Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson.
Major things of difference
In spite of numerous similarities between developmental ideas of Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson, they are still quite different because each scientist brought in some new ideas and theoretical principles in his theory. So, developmental theories kept progressing and accumulated new ideas and ideas. In this esteem, it will probably be worth mentioning the fact that Erikson, for case, arranged life into eight periods that extend from labor and birth to loss of life (many developmental theories only cover child years) (Zastrow and Kirst-Ashman, 2007). Kohlberg acquired six periods of the personal development of a person, whereas Piaget identified only three levels of the cognitive development. In fact, such a notable difference in the amount of stages is the consequence of the overall improvement of the developmental theory because Piaget was a pioneer in this field and his four levels were the basis for the further development of the developmental theory.
At once, periods of development differed not only in amount but also in the essence and definition of every stage. Actually, phases of development are quite different in Kohlberg's, Piaget's, and Erikson's theories. For instance, Kohlberg's first three stages coincide with Piaget's ones, whereas Erikson has eight phases which he prolongs to the adulthood. The explanation of each stage differs although some of these may have certain similarities with one another. Nevertheless, each stage and classification created by Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson is unique.
Furthermore, the introduction of the child is determined by different factors. To put it more accurately, Erikson insists on the connections between genetic biological programming, psychological development and social affects, whereas Kohlberg strains the importance of moral development of a child and Piaget adds the impact of the interpersonal environment on children's development. Nevertheless, whatever factors influence the non-public development of a person they are essential for the entire development of the average person.
The interaction of cognitive, physical and psychological development in the overall development of the child
In actuality, Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson agree that the close connections between cognitive, physical and psychological development is vital for the entire development of the child. Whatever the interactions are specifically like, they work best, Kohlberg says, when they are open up and democratic (Bjorklund & Pellegrini, 2000). This idea can be traced in the task of Erikson, who argues that ethnic influences shouldn't oppress a person and every individual process the info she or he perceives from the external world. However, the foundation of this idea can be followed back works of Piaget, who argued that every individual cannot reach a higher level of development if she or he does not reach the cognitive, physical and mental development appropriate to this level. The three researchers agree that it is through the relationship of physical, psychological and cognitive development individuals keep progressing and producing.
Thus, considering all previously listed, it's important to lay focus on the fact that the contribution of Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson in the progress of the developmental theory can rarely be underestimated. Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson created developmental theories which stand on the floor that the personal development of a person passes through several stages, which may be clearly traced through the examination of the physical, emotional and cognitive development of a person. Periods of personal development may vary depending on scientist but they are necessary for the overall development of the child because a person goes by through them entering new, increasingly more complicated stages of the development to the magnitude that Erikson extrapolates stages of development to the adulthood. Actually, Piaget, Kohlberg and Erikson made a significant impact on the modern developmental theory.
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