Shaking, Grooming - Zoopsychology and comparative psychology


Everyone knows how to shake off a dog that has come out of the water. In fact, all the mammals are also shaken off. This form of comfortable behavior takes place in representatives of other classes of vertebrates. Very vigorously shake after bathing in water or sand of a bird. Marked similar movements in fish. So, with the help of shaking, fish-needles are cleaned. Doing vigorous shaking movements, i.e. rapidly rotating around the longitudinal axis, they are released from unwanted arthropods or from foreign bodies. In addition, they are washed with a tail that reaches to the back. The fish-needle bends its tail, making a loop at the end, and quickly slides it along the trunk along its entire length, carrying out a cleaning. In seahorses, the front part of the trunk is fixed, and they are protected from parasites also with the help of a tail, which is very cleverly used for cleaning the trunk.

Marine iguanas flies off by trembling or shaking the trunk, or they scratch themselves with their hind legs, but not as rhythmically as we see in dogs.


Recall that grooming is the entire complex care for the surface of external covers, including the touch of different individuals to each other in communication. They carefully take care of their fur and pay much attention to caring for the fur of the relatives of the dormouse. They lick their abdomen and tail, scratch their head with their hind legs, chest and nape, wash their head with their forepaws moistened with saliva. Like dogs, the shelves wipe their lips after eating about the litter. After they get wet, they squeeze the moisture from the stomach and sides, moving forward with wriggling movements. Chinchillas clean their fur like birds, swimming in the sand.

After eating, clean the mouth and lizards, they do this by wiping the leftovers of food on a coarse substrate, much like cleaning a bird's beak. To cope with a large piece, lizards use the front legs, and brush or scratch their head and sides with their hind legs.

Roe deer very often lick and bite themselves, they scratch their hind legs, and males - and horns. Mutual licking is often observed between mother and baby, as well as between male and female during estrus. Roe deer even cause each other to do this by pushing the partner upside down.

The reindeer can be observed cleaning the horns - this is releasing them from the shell, which, like a bark, covers the bones of young antler horns. In beavers, the mother very carefully cleans the young and thoroughly impregnates their fats with fat, so that they do not become wet. To do this, it serves a specific secret. In beavers grown by a man, because of the absence of such a secret, fur was in most cases disheveled, shaggy. Only in three months after a birth young beavers start to look after the fur.

Flying dogs repeatedly lick the whole body with a rough long tongue, but they never lick their relatives. Only the mother carefully cleans the fur and coat of her cub. With claws on their feet, they scratch and comb their fur. With the help of a claw, flying dogs carefully clean themselves and their ears and teeth, freeing the gaps between them from the remnants of fruit. At the same time, they stretch their lips.

Very carefully look after their fur cats. The paw moistened with saliva, in circular motions, they wash the fur from the bottom upwards and from behind forward on the sides to the muzzle and repeat it several times. This washing gradually takes over more and more distant parts of the body. After that, the belly and sides are licked very thoroughly. The cats also lick their own kittens just as carefully. After sleeping, the cat stretches, yawns and sharpens its claws.

Care of each other's skin surface is very common in animals living in groups. Mutual grooming plays an important role in the implementation of tactile communications. For example, boars like to lie next to each other, even each other. The partner scratches his teeth with the bristles of another wild boar and rubs with a five-kopeck piece, which gives him obvious pleasure. He lies on his back, relaxes and blissfully closes his eyes, and his partner massages his belly at this time. The social nature of caring for the hair and skin for these animals is very important, because by virtue of the structure of their body they can neither lick themselves nor comb out themselves. In addition, boars often rub against the trees and lie in the mud with pleasure. It was noted that the old swordsmen are lying in the anthills. In gazelles, mutual licking and scraping is a sign of tenderness, and is given even more importance than simply caring for fur. On the surface of the body of animals there are zones, scratches which gives them a special pleasure. So cats like it when they scratch the throat area and behind the ears, dogs - chest, stomach and back, parrots - head, etc. On the contrary, animals are not allowed to touch some other zones. In the process of mutual grooming, some animals publish specific comfortable sounds. These include all well-known purring cat.

Mutual grooming is common among birds. It is very easy to clean each other crows. This is most often observed in birds that have created a pair. A top part of the head with fluffy feathers or a throat is substituted for the partner, which means the requirement to clean; But they never come too close to each other. Many small parrots, living in groups or pairs, actively contact, tightly nestling and substituting one's head for cleaning with feathered feathers, and feeding each other. Very willingly engaged in mutual cleaning all kinds of astralds. Mutual caress and cleansing of feathers always acts in their community soothingly and restrains aggression. In contrast to the astralds, Senegalian weavers never clean each other. Very sociable and willing to brush each other with mustachioed weavers. They also stimulate each other to mutual cleaning by substituting a head or neck with feathered plumage. The pairs of weavers always stay together, constantly cleaning each other. Sparrows, although they do not clean each other, as is common in many strongly pronounced "contact" species, but allow others to glue with plumage particles of dirt.

But, of course, the most striking example of mutual skin care are monkeys. Caring for fur, mutual search for insects belong to calming, pacifying gestures. This business they are engaged enthusiastically, for hours. This process is very exciting for others: everyone can search all the others. One monkey approaches the other, and she begins to remove parasites from her, combing her hair with her hands and picking mud and insects with her mouth. During this operation, monkeys close their eyes and, apparently, experience complete bliss. Then the roles change: the second monkey presents himself at the disposal of the first. The sequence of mutual searches and cleansing plays an important role in maintaining hierarchical relationships in the group. The center of attraction is often the dominant male or female with the baby. Leaders have a great attraction: they should sit down, as several subordinates rush to rob parasites from them. Almost the same attention is attracted to newborns. Leaders almost never depart from the young mother either on vacation or during the transitions. When she sits down, adult females and adolescents, picking off parasites from her, try to look for them in the baby. This method of skin care is not common in all types of monkeys. For example, it is almost completely absent in gorillas.

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