Signs of Correctness of Psychodiagnostic Procedures
First a symptom of the correctness of the methodology - relevance (compliance) of that activity, on the forecast of success in which it is directed . This means that in addition to the formal statistical indicators of validity (expressed in terms of validity coefficients), the methodology must have substantial validity. If there is only a formal correspondence between the success of the methodology and the success of the predicted activity, and the degree of similarity, psychological relevance of the nature of the predicted and test activity does not play a role (as it often was in traditional tests), then this technique can be suitable only for ascertaining some psychological characteristics , for the selection and classification of individuals on these characteristics. But on the basis of this technique it is impossible to draw up any correction plan. So, for example, the well-known intellectual drawing test of Gudinaf-Harris allows for the ability of a child to draw a human figure quite accurately determine the level of his mental development. But what are the ways to correct it, if the indicator for this test is low? It is impossible to answer this question, but hardly anyone believes that it is necessary to develop the skills of drawing.
Meanwhile, the meaningful validity of the diagnostic technique lies in the strict semantic correspondence of the activity performed by the subject in the testing process, and his own activity, to predict the success of which the test is directed, in their psychological homogeneity and psychological similarity. This means that those essential features and aspects of activity that are measured by the tests on which the success of its implementation depends, will determine the success of the performance predicted by the test. The student's intellectual development test, which is correct, should evaluate the knowledge and thinking operations that reveal themselves in the learning activity, on which the success of the latter depends.
How is the relevance of the diagnostic methodology predicted activities? It should be constructed on the basis of an analysis of the content of the projected activity. The test of mental development, in order to be correctional (to have the first sign of correctness), should be created according to the results of the analysis of educational activity. So, for example, when constructing the School Test of Mental Development (School Test of Intellectual Development - STUD), its authors proceeded from the analysis of the content of educational activity of schoolchildren of the corresponding age (7-10th grades) (see Chapter 5 of this textbook). >
The discrepancy between the traditional test methodology and the corrective technique (by the composition of the concepts used) is very important. First, the composition of mental operations, their formation can not be indifferent to the content of knowledge, concepts, in relation to which they are applied. The ability to perform an operation on one specific content (for example, mathematical) does not necessarily mean that this skill will be shown in relation to other content (for example, natural science). Secondly, a defect in a mental operation can say either that it itself is not sufficiently formed, or that it is poorly performed in relation to the given knowledge, concept. To eliminate this inaccuracy, ambiguity, it is necessary to check the mental operation on a different content of knowledge.
The traditional test does not provide such an opportunity, and new methods of correctness allow this to be done. If, for example, when diagnosing a student with the help of NTTUR, it is found that he made many mistakes in the subtest of "Analogy", you can find out by qualitative analysis, in which tasks he was most often mistaken. If these are jobs with a certain content (for example, mathematical), the psychologist concludes that the student can not use the operation of inference by analogy with respect to mathematical concepts, and this conclusion must be taken into account when corrective work is carried out. If, on the contrary, it turns out that the student makes mistakes in performing this operation on any kind of content used in the test (mathematical, humanitarian, natural science), it should be concluded that the thinking skills by analogy are not formed at all, and this mental operation needs to be developed with the help of a correctional program.
It can also happen that a student does poorly all or nearly all tasks of a test with a certain content, regardless of the nature of the mental operation that is required to be carried out. This means that he does not possess certain knowledge, which must already be represented in his experience. In this case, it is necessary to fill the gaps in knowledge, for which appropriate measures relating to pedagogical correction are used.
Thus, having learned the nature of the violations during testing, you can either correct the disturbed mental operation with the help of a special corrective program in which the knowledge composition will be taken into account, or eliminate knowledge gaps. The main thing at the same time is to be sure that with the concepts, knowledge included in the test, the person should already be familiar that they are indicators of his level of mental development.
The problem arises: how to ensure that the content of the test was not the result of empirical representations of its author-psychologist, but would result from objective requirements for human development, those requirements that are set by society. Consequently, the most important task in the development of the test is to choose a criterion that the person's mental development must match and with which the results of a psychodiagnostic examination should be compared.
An understanding of this problem leads to the definition of second a symptom of the correctness of the methodology. This feature is the orientation of the methodology to the development criterion, or to the standard.
As already mentioned in Ch. 8 of this textbook, in psychological diagnosis in the 1960-1970's. emerged and is currently developing a new, criterially-oriented approach. Within its framework, psychologists develop methods (CORT) that reveal the degree to which the student's preparation meets the development criteria contained in the curricula. The CORT provides the teacher with information on whether he has achieved or not the learning goals he has set, ie, Did he teach what he wanted to teach his students? Thus, it is adapted to detect gaps in knowledge, unformed learning skills and to determine the direction of corrective work with the student.
The use of COURT for the purposes of the current and final verification of the effectiveness of the educational process has proved itself well in the learning system, which implies full assimilation. This system, originated in the US, spread to schools in several other countries (Great Britain, Belgium, Australia, Brazil, etc.).
A critically-oriented approach to the diagnosis of mental development can be realized in two plans. One of them is connected with the development of methods oriented on a criterion, understood as a set of components of mental development, which determine the fulfillment of specific study assignments. Another direction of the implementation of the criterial-oriented approach to the diagnosis of mental development is associated with the development of techniques aimed at the social and psychological standards system. In relation to the mental development of students, each such standard can be presented as a set of specified requirements of the school curriculum that are presented to students at a certain stage of training. The norm reveals the development prospects, determines its dynamics. With the help of methodologies oriented to the normative, the degree of the individual's preparedness for the requirements that society presents to each of them at a certain educational and age stage of their development is investigated. Thanks to the approach from the standpoint of the socio-psychological norm, a way is opened for elucidating the degree of closeness of the logical and conceptual development of the individual to that which is recognized as socially necessary, as well as the gaps that are revealed when the components of this development are compared with the normative. Thus, the norm, being a generalized embodiment of social requirements for the mental development of a student of a certain educational and age level, indicates the direction of corrective work with it.
Third the symptom of the correctness of the psychodiagnostic technique determines that it must have methods for qualitative analysis of the results. Quantitative indicators of the implementation of the methodology allow only in the most general form to present the level of achievements of an individual, to clarify those types of tasks that have been solved to a greater extent, and those that have been solved poorly. The qualitative characteristic of the results of the diagnostic technique allows us to determine the typical mistakes of the individual in the performance of each type of tasks, the least assimilated areas of the educational content, poorly performed or completely unworkable mental operations. For example, in STD in the subtest "Analogy the schoolboy must demonstrate his ability to establish logical and functional relationships between the concepts of different types: part - the whole, the cause - effect, the species - gender, rank, relation of consistency, relation of the opposite, functional relations. Only a specially developed system of qualitative analysis will make it possible to find out which of the listed types of logical-functional relations the pupil possesses at the proper level, and which he does not possess at all. Such an analysis will provide a deeper understanding of the state of mental development of a particular schoolboy and, if necessary, help him through correction exercises.
All marked signs of correctness are present in the STD, which allowed it to develop a corrective program for the mental development of students. Later, other correction and development programs were created. They are not limited to training and training in the performance of individual mental operations and mental actions, but are the organization of the integral meaningful activity of the child and the adult, conducted in accordance with certain scientifically based principles.
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