Social Context: Friends and Adults - Psychology

Social Context: Friends and Adults

Relationships with peers in adolescence play no less a role in the development of the personality than in adolescents. However, the psychological content of these relations is somewhat different. If the teenager most strived to be accepted by the group as a whole, quite often even doing for him uncharacteristic deeds, then in his youth, peers are already divided into referents, whose opinion is significant, and on non-referential, whose opinion is indifferent. If a teenager is more interested in the number of friends demonstrating a positive attitude toward his person, then the quality of the relationship with one or two close friends is important for the boy. For him, the opinion of several comrades with whom he finds a similarity in values ​​is essential. The opinions of the others already influence his behavior. Relations with a close friend become intimate-trusting and much more constant than in adolescents.

Peer companies in the transition from adolescence to adolescence are transformed into heterosexual groups, in which they acquire the skills to communicate with the opposite sex. Romantic dates in the early youth perform several socializing functions, among which in the last places are the search for intimacy and the choice of a marriage partner. The rendezvous reminiscent of the rather "serious game", which was described above.

Love - one of the burning issues of youth.

According to E. Erikson, youthful love is an attempt to come to the definition of one's own identity by projecting one's own originally indistinct image onto someone else and seeing it already in reflected and clarified form. True intimacy is possible only with the achieved ego-identity. At the same time, love, in turn, can contribute to the achievement of identity.

Family Relationships for most older adolescents remain a highly significant area of ​​life. Compared with the previous stage of life, when a teenager in every way tried to escape from the control of an adult for his life, in an adolescent period it becomes important the possibility of confidential communication "on equal terms" with parents or other authoritative adults from the closest circle. It is about establishing relations of interdependence, on which the entire human society is built. An enormous role in the formation of the personality of an adult man is played by the established relationships in the parent family. It is known that the most favorable effect on the socialization of adolescents is provided by a family with an average level of cohesion and a mild division of family roles (M. Morval). Apparently, such a structure, perhaps not the most favorable in other circumstances, allows the family to less painfully adapt to the qualitative changes in relations to adult children, it is easier to reconcile with their independence and, ultimately, withdrawal from the family. Relatively painless revision of power relations in the family, the establishment of interdependence relationships are possible in families with emotionally differentiated adults, even if they are incomplete families.

Many Western scholars believe that conflicts between parents and adolescents are greatly exaggerated by ordinary consciousness; that in fact the transition to adulthood is gradual (G. Kreig). They also note that the current notion of a period of "storm and onslaught" is not supported by scientific research. However, if you follow the thesis of LS Vygotsky about the child's relative difficulty in the critical period of development, then it is still a crisis, but individual manifestations of it do not always reach the pathological form. In addition, it is impossible to deny the existence of qualitative changes in the personality of a person who becomes an independent member of society from a dependent family member.

The integration of values ​​ of the parent family and the group of peers belongs to the peculiarities of adolescence. This is the only, albeit difficult, way to build your own personal identity. At the previous stage (in adolescence), children are striving completely

correspond to the values ​​of peers (in school or on the street), then the values ​​of parents (in the family). Therefore, the behavior of a teenager is so contradictory, he lacks consistency. In adolescence, you already have to integrate different types of values ​​or make choices, forming your own values ​​for the sake of achieving identity. Typically, during schooling, the optimal situation is when the immediate decisions (on hair, clothing or musical preferences) a person borrows from peers, and on more significant issues (where to go to study or work) consults with parents. Otherwise, with unfavorable relationships in the family and with peers, the risk of deviant deviant behavior is great. Sociologists note that the most important factors in preventing deviant behavior are attachment and involvement in activities (J. Masionis).

In the process of formation of identity and values ​​of a young person, not only parents and peers participate. According to E. Erikson, "... the social institution responsible for identity is ideology". Attitude to macrosocial processes is formed not only under the influence of the immediate environment (parents, teachers and peers), but also to a great extent under the influence of mass communication.

Self-determination in relation to social values ​​ can be represented as a choice from the "life options" offered by the society " (VN Druzhinin).

Of all the information received before and during the youth about the society and about oneself, the person entering into life is building his own project of the future.

The life plans of most young people of both sexes include both professional careers, marriage, and children. A survey of United States high school students showed that the highest value for most of them is a happy family life. However, only girls are worried about the incompatibility of the family and career (42% of the respondents), while the boys are not worried about this (G. Kreig). It is unlikely that these differences are caused by family factors. Most likely, this is the influence of gender stereotypes existing in society.

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