Social Mythology - Political Psychology

Social mythology

Prominent Western philosophers have long and perceptually caught the demand of the ruling class for social myths. They noticed a number of important regularities in the social life of the capitalist countries that influenced the emergence and functioning of such myths, pointed to some objective prerequisites for the widespread dissemination of spiritual stencils, drew attention to certain cultural and psychological factors that contributed to the development of social mythology.

Understanding ideology as social mythology has solid traditions in Western philosophy (A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche, Z. Freud) and is associated primarily with the growth in it of elements of irrationalism with the discrediting of reason as a means of cognizing social processes. A special role in the comprehension of ideology as social mythology was played by the works of A. Schopenhauer, F. Nietzsche, J. Sorel, C. Freud, K. Jung. Supporters of irrationalism insisted on the limited cognitive abilities of the mind. The surrounding world, social reality, from their point of view, are devoid of regularities, here there is a blind will, a case.

Extracted knowledge was estimated by the Enlightenment as elitist, full of spiritual mystery, but at the same time open, intended for the uninitiated, able to enlighten any person. This meant, on the one hand, that knowledge should be guarded against distortions, self-motivated motives, and on the other - that it by its very nature can not remain secret, closed.

The consciousness of the masses was also endowed with certain features. It was assumed that people are in the tense expectation of truth and not only can they appreciate the truly reasonable, spiritual, but also possess certain skills (again imparted by intellectuals) to critical perception, are able to reject false constructs, lack of spirituality, pseudo-truths. However, already in the XIX century. there were moral charges against thinkers who allegedly were to blame for renouncing the mission of the Enlightenment, as well as for the masses who allegedly do not have a craving for knowledge.

Criticism of reason in Nietzsche is not only epistemological, but also moral and ideological aspect. In his opinion, the question of the truth or falsity of knowledge can not be solved within the framework of discursive logic, since knowledge has a vital utilitarian purpose and is aimed at "mastery of things." It is not important to what extent this or that particular idea reflects the laws of the world, i.e. it is true or false. Essentially another - how it meets the moral and ideological goals of man, regulates human relations, allows one to dominate over others. What is the truth proving? A sense of increased power - utility, inevitability - in short, benefits (namely, the prerequisites for what truth should be, so that it is recognized by us) ... Why to know: why not deceive? .. What they always wanted is not true, but faith ... Faith is created through completely different, opposite means than the method of investigation: it even excludes the last. "

Nietzschean doctrine of ideology is permeated with the pathos of exposure. He strongly criticized Nietzsche for those views that were not consistent with the "will to power". The interpretation of consciousness itself was rethought. The function of the latter was considered by Nietzsche to be the adaptation of the subject to reality by subjugating being, obeying his will. According to the scientist, ideology is the illusion of a concrete epoch, a specific culture.

F. Nietzsche was not opposed to social mythology. On the contrary, he created mythology, replacing it with new fictions, stereotypes of "strong personality", "will to power", total nihilism. "And without myth," wrote Nietzsche, "every culture loses its healthy creative nature of natural power: only the horizon, arranged by myths, closes the whole cultural movement into some complete whole ... The images of the myth should be guarded by invisible ubiquitous demons; A young soul grows by their protection, by signs their husband interprets his life and his battles; and even the state does not know more powerful unwritten laws than this mythical basis ...

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