Socio-psychological characteristics of the conflict
Conflict (from Latin conflictus - collision) is a form of expression of contradiction. In conflict theory (conflictology) it is customary to describe conflict from several points of view:
1) as a struggle aimed at neutralizing the enemy and inflicting damage on him;
2) as a mental stress and hostility towards others;
3) as the achievement of their own goals by suppressing others.
Conflict as a social phenomenon gives a well-known, brightly colored negative effect. But at the same time he performs an important positive function, which consists in resolving contradictions, developing through the awareness of the participants in the conflict of the very fact of what happened and the accumulation of life experience. Conflict is a means of expressing dissatisfaction or protest, informing conflicting parties about their interests and needs. In certain situations, when negative relationships between people are controlled and at least one of the parties defends not only personal, but also organizational interests, conflicts help participants to unite, mobilize will and intellectual efforts to solve crucial issues.
Socio-psychological causes of conflict are due to the direct interaction of people, the very fact of their inclusion in social groups. There are several typical socio-psychological causes of conflict:
1. Significant losses and distortions of information in the process of interpersonal and inter-group communication. Often a person in the process of communication can not convey all information relating to the problem discussed with the partner, without significant distortion. Much of the information is at the level of the unconscious and words are not expressed at all. The other part is lost because of the limited vocabulary of a particular person, lack of time. Much of what has been said is not assimilated by the interlocutor because of inattention or difficulties in understanding. Misunderstanding of each other's people can cause conflicts, complicate the resolution of social contradictions that have arisen for other reasons.
2. Unbalanced role interaction between two people or groups. In a situation of interpersonal interaction and communication, its participants may not play the roles that they expect from each other. When the leader communicates, for example, with a subordinate, then usually he considers himself to be senior, and the subordinate to the younger. If the subordinate in this situation also evaluates the distribution of roles, then such interaction will last conflictlessly and arbitrarily long.
3. People's misunderstanding that, when discussing a problem, the mismatch of positions can be caused not by a real difference in views but by different approaches to its solution. Problems that people discuss and solve are usually complex, have many sides and shades. Partners in interaction often come to their solution, having initially different attitudes to the current situation. As a result, the participants of the discussion can not evaluate the same aspect of it the same way. In principle, when discussing a complex problem in a group, there will be approximately as many points of view as there are people participating in its discussion. A variety of opinions is natural and necessary, but despite this, some people sometimes feel painful to points of view that differ from their own.
4. Selecting by group members different ways of mutual evaluation of the results of activities and personalities of each other. When evaluating others, a person more often takes as a basis what they failed to do in comparison with those who performed a similar work on "excellent" . The employee himself usually evaluates his results, focusing on the quality of the activities of other people who have performed a similar job worse. As a result, the same activity can be evaluated not only in different ways, but even the opposite.
There is a sociopsychological regularity, according to which people tend to attribute (just or not) merit exclusively to their work and competence, and explain their own failures, failures and mistakes with bad luck, intrigues or incompetence of other people or an unfavorable situation. The attitude to the successes and failures of their opponents usually obeys the opposite logic: the enemy's failures are laid entirely on the individual, and his merits are devaluated by the influence of situational factors (lucky, good advisers, etc.).
There is a number of socio-psychological reasons for interpersonal and intergroup conflicts. These include the inherent human competitiveness of interaction with other people; limited ability to decentralize, i.e. Change its own position as a result of its comparison with the positions of opponents; aspiration to power, etc.
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