Stages of socialization of the personSuch a long, non-linear process, long in time and in the space of human existence, as socialization, has a certain, albeit conditional, stage, caused by the correlation of the anatomical and physiological and mental development of a person, the specificity of the social situation and holistic being in different periods of life. In psychology and sociology, there are different approaches to distinguishing the stages of socialization, built on a variety of and dissimilar grounds.
• The psychoanalytic concept links the stages of socialization with the manifestation of biological impulses, all-powerful instincts and the corresponding subconscious motives. Thus, Freud believed that the main personal characteristics are formed in the first five years of the child's life at the stage of primary socialization, which is divided into the oral, anal, phallic stages (for details, see Section III).
It should be noted that such an approach to the processes of socialization (incidentally, widespread in the literature) seems artificial and impoverishes this objective, complex phenomenon and scientific concept to the level of the known dogmas (and simplifications) of initial psychoanalysis that are not accepted by all psychological directions and scientific schools. The basic postulates of Freudianism are in fact ideological, indirectly projecting the corresponding outlook of their adherents, but lacking reliable empirical, factual, and scientific proof.
The next stage of socialization, distinguished by roughly generalized "periods" mental development as the socialization of adolescents , is called marginal socialization (as well as intermediate, or pseudo-stable). This transitional, turning age (from childhood to adulthood) is associated mainly with the development of self-knowledge and self-assertion of the individual, her emphatic desire for group identity (see Chapter 22).
Sustainable socialization refers to an abstract adult personality and coincides with the acquisition of a certain status and the fulfillment of a wide range of social responsibilities, interpersonal roles. This stage is associated with a relatively stable, subjectively accepted position of a person in society. It indicates a sufficient socio-psychological adaptation of the individual, the recognition of his own social identity.
Finally, the last stage of socialization is associated with the loss of habitual status, the loss of a number of roles due to a person's retirement. During this period, the person, as a rule, is experiencing a difficult social situation, as if disadapted. Negative experiences can be caused by the loss of close people, and the irreversible aging of the body. Often the feeling of loneliness and subjective uselessness is actualized. But such personal experiences can be completely compensated by finding new joys and senses of life, finding their usefulness and social necessity (see Chapter 37).
We note that the selection and the brief description of these generalized stages of socialization is extremely schematic, strictly indicative, since the corresponding theories and developments in the classical sphere of child and age psychology contain an incomparably deeper, more diverse and substantial psychological and socio-psychological material (see Section III).
• Many authors (P. Berger, T. Lukman, A. A. Rean) distinguish primary and secondary socialization . If in the first person a generalized image of the world is formed, then in the secondary socialization there is a personal distribution of knowledge in accordance with the division of labor and social roles.
It should be noted a considerable convention of using the categories "primary-secondary" in such a gradation of the types of socialization of the individual. These terms do not in fact mean either the temporal sequence of the stages of socialization or their significance for the formation and development of the individual. The processes of socialization proceed only in a simultaneous unity, comparison and subjective generalization.
• One of the most common approaches to the interpretation and study of socialization is A. Bandura's concept of social learning, realized through socially reinforced playing (his own behavioral experience) and by observation (meaningful assimilation).
• In accordance with the methodology of domestic social psychology there is a widespread opinion that the socialization of the individual is carried out primarily in the course of work. That is why the three main stages of the socialization of the individual are accepted: pre-labor, labor and post-labor (GM Andreev).
The labor stage covers a long period of a person's life before the beginning of his labor activity and is divided into two relatively independent stages:
1) early socialization, lasting from the birth of a child before entering the school;
2) the stage of socialization in the learning process, including the period of adolescence and youth (although the educational process can also take place in adulthood). To this stage is primarily schooling.
Concerning teaching in secondary and higher educational institutions the opinions of the researchers diverge, because the general and vocational education already in its purpose differently correlate with the subsequent independent work of students. Yes, and the profile of the university or college can (and should) vary significantly in the ratio of the actual educational and upcoming production activities of students in them. Educational socialization of future philosophers, for example, is different than socialization in the formation of the future physical education teacher. At the same time, a whole system of urgent problems of sociology, economics, social pedagogy, and pedagogical psychology is actualized. The theoretical problems of socialization are addressed in related and more specific issues of the content and organization of the educational process (see Chapter 38).
The labor stage of socialization is carried out in the long period of a man's maturity and his labor activity. Recognition of the leading importance of labor activity for the existence and development of personality attaches special importance to this stage. During this period, all aspects and spheres of socialization are fruitfully realized.
The initial provisions of the philosophy of Marxism on the leading role of labor in the origin of the family, private property and the state, probably, should be mechanically transferred to the level of a concrete person and thereby simplify the interpretation and understanding of the individual psyche. Man exists on the planet not only for the sake of teaching or labor, which are only means and necessary conditions for social existence. Hence, the processes of socialization of the individual are not exhausted by its formation (training) and the production of the product (labor). In addition, the phenomenon of labor itself is much wider than what is called in the domestic psychology "a separate labor activity" (see Chapter 7). Human labor is always socially distributed, but not always really joint. For example, an artist, a scientist, a writer does not go to work for real (contact) labor collective every day, but their labor socialization does not disappear or cease. Therefore, the formal exit of the adult personality from the socially organized, standardized production of any product (material or spiritual) does not mean the completion of labor processes in the life and being of man. The processes of socialization of personality do not stop.
As for the post-labor stage , its selection does not always lead to correct and substantive discussions. Increased attention to this issue is due to the fact that in developed countries of the modern world life expectancy increases, which leads to an increase in the proportion of older people in the population structure. In addition, the labor potential of the persons who form the official group of retirees by age is also substantially preserved.
Socialization in old age. There are two points of view on the problem of socialization of the individual in old age. Some researchers believe that the very notion of socialization is inapplicable to older people, since all social functions in this period are allegedly being phased out and no assimilation of social experience or its reproduction occurs. The extreme position of this pessimistic point of view lies in the phenomenon of the so-called "desocialization" of a person who appears to be coming after the end of active labor activity.
There is another, humane and more justified approach to understanding the psychological essence of the elderly. So, according to BG Ananiev, socialization is in "parallel" the emergence of man as a person and as a subject of activity, and therefore never ceases during life. This is evidenced by the results of empirical studies of the continued social activity of so many elderly people. This age is reasonably regarded as making a special and irreplaceable contribution to the creation, translation and reproduction of social experience. Widely popular are pensioners - mentors of youth, artists, writers, teachers, artists, scientists, clergymen, etc. The elderly people successfully adapt to the changed conditions of life, join in new social connections and institutions: councils of veterans, house committees, associations, collectives of artistic and scientific creativity, and many other equally important public associations (see Chapter 37).
There are jobs in which early (by age) retirement is socially-relied on: miners, pilots, metallurgists, ballet dancers, divers, etc. On the contrary, for a peasant or a farmer, the fact of retirement is subjectively, probably, absurd, artificial social indication or formal, unfulfillable demand. Care for a well-deserved rest can be accompanied by an equally hostile, even pejorative attitude of society both to the individual and to the type of labor activity. But in fact the work itself and the labor socialization of a person certainly do not stop in any variants or cases, except for extreme, socially or physically unsuccessful for the person.Versatile problems of labor socialization can not be considered scientifically without careful consideration of the specifics of both labor itself and a particular individual, as well as the characteristics of the society: the broad (state, nation) and narrow (profession, social status, family). >
Finally, it should be noted that most people tend to have a somewhat evasive attitude toward their own age. Only children envy adults, seeking more independence and independence. However, after achieving some subjective adulthood or apparent maturity, a person usually refers to other, more elderly people, not only with respect, but also with some hidden (and not always conscious) pity, sympathy, from the position of the primitive and undeniable superiority of youth over old age. In this there is nothing surprising and reprehensible. It is psychologically, subjectively normal, if only it is extended to the real deeds and actions of fellow citizens, to unreasonable and not always correct social restrictions (such as age segregation), even to some fairly common, but pseudoscientific constructions.
The continuation of socialization in old age is indirectly recognized in the well-known concept of personal development by E. Erickson (see § 27.1). Image I and the corresponding ways of personality behavior are developed and function throughout life and are a condition of mental and psychological health, and psychosocial identity gives a person an understanding of the significance of his being. Only in the last, eighth stage of this age periodization - "maturity" (after 65 years) a person can acquire calm wisdom, which corresponds to a complete, higher form of egotism.
Factors of socialization. There are several rather simplistic approaches to assessing the factors that determine the process and result of socialization. Supporters of biogenetic concepts believe that the internal factor has a decisive influence - some or other individual, including biological and psychological characteristics of a person. Adherents of sociogenetic theories take the leading role to the external environment , considering the process of socialization as a mechanical assimilation (imitation) of the experience, traditions, customs accumulated by mankind. According to the ideas of the eclectic theory of "convergence of two factors" the formation and socialization of the personality are due to the alternate crossing, "add-ons" social experience over the biological basis, and vice versa.
In the theoretical constructions of United States psychology, decisive importance in the socialization of the individual is attached to the processes of interaction, the dialectical relationship of objective society and the subjective personality. External, including social impact on the person is repeatedly refracted through her internal conditions (SL Rubinstein), through the subjective world of man, his psychological features and acquired social experience, which has become a psychic experience of the individual. But the converse is also true: everything internal, mental is also manifested and realized only through the external - material (see Chapter 1).Multilayered social impacts are sometimes divided into macro-, meso- and microfactors, which carry various socio-political, economic, historical, national, cultural and other characteristics of the social existence of the individual.
Macrofactors are the broadest social and natural conditions for the existence and socialization of the personality, ascribed to its belonging to large social groups. These are such categories as humanity, ethnos, nation, civilization, culture, country, state, etc., adopted to distinguish (often conditional) people living in certain territorial and administrative boundaries and united by virtue of historical, socio-economic, political, religious and, perhaps, psychological reasons.
Mesophofors are the determinants of the socialization of the personality, due to its being in the community of some "average" values. This, for example, is the specific place of residence, location or work of a person: a giant or small town, a resort spot, an auto giant plant, a mine, a military unit, a village, a farm, a working village, etc.Microfactors are components and institutions of socialization of the personality associated with the stay of people in so-called small primary and contact groups (such as family, circle of friends and relatives, labor collective, educational institution, etc.).
The expressed convention of such a three-layer division of society is associated with the conceptual fuzziness, ambiguity of the produced public gradations, when the basis is that purely quantitative "volume" this or that social community, then the duration of its impact on the socialization of the individual, the strength, direction and effectiveness of such impacts. Psychologically, the main is not an abstract distribution of socium influences on relatively macro-, meso- and micro-effects, but a well-founded identification of their subjective significance for the individual, the study of their specific psychological manifestations and consequences.
National or even ethnic, racial belonging of a person can be for one country absolutely insignificant (even absent) "graph" formal personal questionnaire, and for another - subject of subjective pride and national dignity of the citizen of the country.Institutions of socialization are any specific groups in which the personality is attached to the system of social norms and values, acting as carriers, custodians and translators of social experience. This institute is a social form of organization of interaction and all kinds of relationships between people. The Institute of Socialization can be directly a small contact group of colleagues, members of a club for interests or entertainment, or maybe a mediocre and ramified institution, the kind of a culture (subculture) or extensive media, propaganda and agitation.
At the pre-labor stage of socialization, its institutions are the family and pre-school children's institutions.
Family is, of course, the initial and most important factor and executor of socialization. It is here that children acquire the first social skills: communication, interaction, distribution of roles, elementary norms and values. The features of behavior and communication of parents with children in many ways predetermine the course and directions of the social and mental development of children.
The point, of course, is how the family is pedagogically (or socially) called in modern language: full or badly incomplete , safe or deformed deformed (by destructive logic good-bad ). Such negative adjectives become fashionable, freely and widely glued to the family as labels that oblige, doom and children from such families to be knowingly "difficult." But a psychologically favorable situation for a child can be, for example, and in the absence of one of the parents, and in a family with low material wealth. Full and a well-to-do family, in which there are no alcoholics, no drug addicts, no criminals, can be absolutely unfavorable from the point of view of emotional, moral, value. Each family is ambiguous and unique, but necessarily carries within itself the projections of all other social institutions: the state, the nation, education, profession, culture.
For the child in preschool institutions (nursery, orchards), the space and opportunities for socialization expand significantly.
D. B. Elkonin talked about the famous Italian writer-storyteller Gianni Rodari, who in the 1980s. The state system of preschool education that existed in our country was struck and admired. In organizing and psychological-pedagogical substantiation, scientific accompaniment of this unique system, Soviet psychology (A. V. Zaporozhets, N. N. Podlyakov, L. A. Wenger and many others) took the most active and direct part. The inexhaustible problems of the psychology of the child's play and its development potential, the psychological means of the intellectual and personal development of the preschool child, his sensory education-these and many other problems and questions were the subject of purposeful and systematic psychological research.
In the second period of the pre-labor stage of socialization, its leading institution is the school , the content and structure of which not only depends on the characteristics of society, political, economic and cultural structure of the state, but also largely predetermines these features, yes and the very future of any society. The school provides the pupil with a systematic and compulsory general education, she is called upon to prepare a person for life in society as a whole. The school not only teaches literacy, but also sets the child ideal images and patterns of personality and citizen. It forms, expands and organizes the sphere of knowledge, opens up opportunities for further education and development of the personality.
A myriad of pedagogical and psychological-pedagogical works, many years of work of large and small research teams, institutions and institutes are devoted to the problems of school and school life. Of course, there have been and still are "classic", traditional, "age-old" school problems. But at each time there are questions and problems new, modified and situational, transient (see Chapter 38). The public purpose of the school remains unchanged from the point of view of the processes of socialization: the organized withdrawal of a person from childhood and adolescence and the introduction into adult social life. This socialization of the personality is carried out by means of three conditionally shared, deeply interdependent processes, such as training, upbringing and development. They are to a different degree purposeful and normalized, differently systematized, standardization and external management, social control.
It should be noted that the socio-psychological aspects of the educational process (both at school and outside it) constitute a special, extremely extensive and insufficiently allocated research space.
Full-fledged institutions, i.e. real performers and addressees of socialization, are public associations (formal and informal). These are all kinds of labor groups and collectives, scientific communities, cultural institutions, military units, political organizations, religious associations, the circle of friends and enemies, etc.
Every living society is in dynamics, experiencing then periods of development, then decline and social crisis. And at each stage of social dynamics, socialization of the individual is carried out differently. In a stable, settled or relatively stable period of society's existence, the processes of socialization of the personality are more equal, more measured, more reliable. Such a society is more consolidated, it is characterized by high cohesion, harmony, social cohesion of individual and social goals and standardized actions to achieve them. Personality finds itself in society, strives for identification with it, for social well-being. But in periods of all kinds of reforms, social changes and revolutions, there is a sharp stratification, a polarization of society, when the discrepancy between the multifaceted values, opportunities and real behavior of people can be contradictory, antagonistic in nature. In such extreme social periods, the socialization of the individual is complicated and slowed down (objectively and subjectively); problematic is the personal choice and values, and the deeds of every single and specific person. The concepts of approved social standards, legal norms and rules are shifted (sometimes to the contrary). In conditions of social instability, the human psyche is subjected to a kind of "experimental" Effects on the part of great politicians and new ideologists. And such influences can not be considered harmless for a particular individual psyche. Based on the extensive experience of previous generations, one can confidently state at least one; the relatively long-term consequences of social revolutions are not subject to good intentions and are not amenable to predictions, reliable verification and correction.
Unfortunately, over the past hundred years, Russia and its people have been repeatedly subjected to drastic and decisive social "experimentation" through a series of wars and revolutions, which, of course, had a lot of pronounced and negative consequences in the field of demography, economics, culture, science and education. Yes, and the current state of the United States society continues to be unstable, largely unformed, prolonged, slow (in time) "perestroika". For many, "the connection of times" has broken, when past social ideas and values are not combined with current and future prospects. Already more than one generation of United States citizens has grown and socialized in the context of the usual, everyday for them, but in fact extreme social instability and uncertainty. Over the past 20 years, the psychology of all members of society has changed: schoolchildren and students, teachers and teachers, workers and scientists, leaders and subordinates, strives to identify with it, to social well-being.
These psychological changes concern all three spheres of socialization, but most of all, the need-semantic sphere, one way or another, that sets all real behavior and the world perception of the individual. There is no science in science and, apparently, there can be no reliable grounds for categorical (and even more hasty) statements that everything is worse or worse in United States society than before. Our society is on the next turn of its inexorable, spiraling dynamics. But one can not but worry about one major manifestation of the results of the mass socialization of a modern person: a decrease or at least the absence of a marked growth in the moral and spiritual values of the individual.
Say, for "reasonable pragmatism new generations of students and students are actually familiar (in any case, quite well-known) becomes the "purchase" Examination assessment, admission to higher education, course or diploma work, etc. up to academic degrees and titles. The availability (and vowel, and illegal) of the exchange value of the "educational services" blocks the consciousness of their wealthy "buyer" from adopting an unyielding and trivial truth: one can not buy one's own education, one can take it, only make it to the person himself, in his own and hard mental work. Here, there is a qualitative transformation of the known scientific psychological and pedagogical problem into another common human problem - moral and moral - the consciousness, honor and conscience of participants in such educational "sale-purchase". At the same time, two social disasters are generated and function: a new uneducated specialist; and a progressively growing, entrenched public dishonesty and immorality, becoming the customary norm. The possible negative consequences of both such disasters do not require detailed evidence.
In modern developed states, society is subject to indisputable, rapid and impressive changes. This applies to technical development and progress: economy and trade, energy and material well-being, means and speeds of movement, communication technology and unlimited mass communication, intensification and implements of labor (physical and mental), means of warfare, information and computer technologies, man's exit from the planet Earth and much more. However, this apparent progress so far seems to be one-sided, instrumental, but not essential. The technicalization of human activity, interpersonal interaction and communication does not at all lead to the compulsory development and perfection of the human psyche, human consciousness. "Species", spirituality, human morality for some reason does not have as impressive progress as mass means of writing, for example, from a goose feather to a personal computer and a laser printer. The widespread use of mobile phones, unfortunately, does not lead to an increase in the culture of speech and ability to express deep and subtle feelings. But the relic images and poems, say, of Pushkin or Shakespeare, the mesmerizing music of Beethoven or Glinka remain, as before, unique, unsurpassed and spiritually inexhaustible creations of the previous human psyche. The historically foreseeable modern socialization of the individual is predominantly a technocratic one, although even in the century before last there were scientists (for example, F. Galton), worried about the "degeneration of mankind", originating allegedly from the time of the classical Athenian civilization. Apparently, the development of techniques and the development of the psyche and personality of the person who inventes it, produces and uses it is carried out according to some sort of different laws and temporal laws.
The processes of socialization are equally necessary for the individual, and for every society: from the abstract (conditional) universal human society to the specific student, teacher or production team. After all, in any human community, the so-called mass phenomena of the psyche arise and function, the real carriers of which are individual individuals and all kinds of social groups.
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