Strategies (types) of qualitative researchJ. Creswell wrote about the strategies of qualitative research, referring to them, with the additions of AM Ulanovsky: phenomenological, biographical, ethnographic research, "grounded theory," the study of an individual case, discourse analysis.
Phenomenological research is focused on obtaining clear, accurate, systematized descriptions of the experiences of the subject. It includes a strategy for collecting and analyzing data on the phenomenological composition of experiences and meanings that a subject, situation, event, or some aspect of life has for a person. The adherents of this strategy of qualitative research include: A. van Kaama, A. Georgie, P. Kolaitzi, C. Fischer, R. von Ekargsberg, D. Polkinhorm, K. Mutaks, J. Smith, etc.
The most acceptable and adequate methods for this type of research are semi-structured phenomenological interviews and subjective self-reports about the experience.
Biographical research is focused on studying the biography or life history of a person. psychobiographical and narrative approaches. Among the representatives of the first approach, we can name BG Ananyeva , Sh. Buhler, V. Dilthey, G. Murray, NA Rybnikov, SL Rubinshtein, Z. Freud, E. Erickson, etc., the second - J. Bruner, D. McAdams, D. Polkinghorn, T. Sarbina, H. Hermans, and others.
The main objective of the classic psychobiographical approach is an accurate realistic reconstruction of the life line of a person, its stages and events, self-sensations and world perception in different periods of human activity, based on documents and facts of it biography.
In the narrative approach the focus of the researcher's attention shifts to the study of life history, to the ways by which the subject constructs his own biography and identity (themes, metaphors, style, etc.). The narrativists by and large are not interested in the "truthfulness" exposition. They focus on the form of presenting their biography to the subjects (key words, phrases, themes, emotionality of presentation, etc.).
The most popular methods within this strategy - biographical interview, analysis of personal documents and autobiographies.
Ethnographic research is carried out in conditions of real life of the subjects. They study the way of their life, group relationships, traditions, beliefs, attitudes, rituals, practices of behavior, questions of identity of the representatives of the studied communities. The main goals of ethnography are the description, analysis and interpretation of human behavior and activities in the context of the culture to which these subjects belong. This implies the study of norms and rules, cultural artifacts, myths, symbols, discourse, prevailing themes, rituals, behavior patterns, types of joint activity, speech communication that characterize a given social group. The bearers of the object of ethnographic research are, as a rule, professional, ethnic, religious groups, youth movements, marginal and other communities.The methodological basis for this strategy of qualitative research can be the works of M. Mead, E. Taylor, J. Frazer, AF Losev, and others. The most commonly used methods are - this included field observation, analysis of household conversations, written testimonies, cultural artifacts, audio and video materials.
Well-grounded theory (grounded theory) is a type of qualitative research that involves, as a result of the analysis of any psychological phenomenon, the phenomenon of its conceptualization at the level of a hypothesis or theory. Such a research strategy proposes to structure and generalize the obtained data using the developed analysis scheme including open, axial and selective coding.
Open Encoding involves identifying the categories and subcategories in the source you are researching. Axial coding is the distribution of the identified category units in the following groups (headings): a phenomenon, causal conditions, context, intermediate conditions, action strategies, effects. In the selective coding process, relationships between categories are established and investigated and their validation is performed.
Basic method well-founded theory - text analysis (field notes, interview summary, documents).
Case study or case study, is aimed at an intensive, in-depth and detailed study any particular case. Cases in qualitative research - these are specific limited in time and place of personality, someone's actions, processes, events, incidents, social practices and programs. The results of case analysis are the form of some "lessons from this situation", i.e. presuppose the identification and description of the causality of the event, the structure of actions and actions, the conditions for the development or extinction of the phenomenon and its prospects (conclusions).
Within the framework of a single case, one or several similar events can be considered (usually up to four). Then this type of qualitative analysis is called the collective case-study.
Discourse analysis is focused on the study of texts and utterances in the process of communication, interaction between people. It is used in psychological research to study the ways of forming and dynamics of the identity of an individual, the position of a person, the argumentation, behavior and social interaction in the process of using certain cultural, religious, political, professional and other discourses. In psychology, discourse came from linguistics, so the main material of analysis are various forms of conversations (audio, gel, video of everyday communication) and newspaper articles. Discourse analysis is based on the positions of discursive psychology, polystructural discourse theories and social constructionist ideas. As John Potter points out, discourse is a relatively stable system of meanings used by a certain community for the purpose of interpreting events. In the process of discourse, a detailed analysis of the numerous pragmatic, sociolinguistic, ideological components of people's speech in the situation of communication: pauses, voice characteristics (frequency, tonality, timbre, etc.), intonation, delay in answers, self-correction, stylistics and grammar of speech. >
At present, the concept of "mixed methods of research" has appeared in methodological social developments. (mixed methods research ), involving the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. This includes, among other things, an integrated approach within the framework of computer programs for the analysis and processing of empirical data.
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