[A] Weight-loss or putting on weight.
[B] Insomnia [unable to sleep] or hypersomnia [excessive sleep].
[C] Incapable to concentrate.
[D] Sever tiredness or lack of energy.
[E] Agitation, anxiety, stress.
Depression comes in many forms such as Clinical, manic, Bipolar. This assignment will focus on Clinical depression and therapies. The theories of behavioural, psychodynamic, and cognitive will be discussed, and the strengths and weakness will be studied and evaluated. Seligman describes psychological problems as the cold, in much as clinical depression is now recognised to how society now lives its lifestyle. Clinical depression is also known as unipolar. Unipolar can begin at an extremely young age and can gradually affect the individual or it can show rapidly.
[Sane] (1993), estimates that, in Britain the depression rate is approximately 5% this estimate covers only major depression, 78% of the population are affected from some type of depression over the next 10 years ( Blacker 2000). Imbedded within in the psychiatrics thinking is that a distinction can be produced between Exogenous (from the outside from stress full experiences, ) and Endogenous (via within from biochemical disturbances).
Williams & and Hargreaves (1995) believes that distinction is controversial as Endogenous is currently used to spell it out cluster of symptoms rather than looking at the origins of depression.
Behavioural theories describe and understand the human personality. Their belief is that cultural and sub-cultural conditioning shapes behaviour and personality. Their theory centres onus as something of culture the human life is pre-organised to how you need to behave. Behaviouralisits base their principles of learning on that of conditioning reinforcement (rewards and punishment). This theory states that if the individual is taught how to understand their environment and moulds with it they will be able to realize why they perform the way they do.
[Pavlov] (1890s) study of dogs cantered on what causes salivation. Under laboratory conditions he discovered that your dog can be trained through several techniques to salivate simply by hearing a bell. This is a conditioned reflex, normal reflexes made by the body automatically he states are an unconditioned reflex as no stimuli is needed. Pavlov's experiment and description how animals and humans can learn to respond in a particular way to certain stimuli exposed a more objective way of studying behaviour, such as phobias.
Skinner (1931) invented the Operant Conditioning Chamber to gauge the responses of organisms such as rats and pigeons and observe how they respond to environments. Skinner informs us that we now have five main obstacles as it pertains to learning these are Fear of Failure, An excessive amount of in one go, insufficient direction, uncertainty, and positive reinforcement.
Pavlov (1890s) experiments show the meaning of classical conditioning.
Skinner (1931) experiments show the meaning of operant conditioning.
It was Skinners chamber that bought behaviourism into the realms of scientific theory as up to this point behaviourism wouldn't normally are the physical sciences.
Modern behaviourists dispute Skinners explanations of studies he did and how he recorded the info (Steddon &Simmeelhag)  found similar behaviour on Skinners studies but concluded their research cannot support his "advantageous reinforcement "explanations.
[Noam Chmosky] (1959) published a view of Skinners verbal behaviour theory and her review of his study accredited her to the Cognitive approach in psychology. She was very critical of Skinners laboratory experiments for the reason that they could not be identified to humans; if it was to add humans it could then be considered a scientific experiment. This theory is very deterministic and it denies that a human has a free will.
Cognitive behavioural theory (C. B. T. ) is a psychotherapeutic approach its aims are to solve problems with dysfunctional cognitions such as behaviour, or emotions. This process has had a lot of positive fed back when it has been used to help personality and psychotic disorders. (C. B. T. ) approach can be used on a person or with a group. Behavioural and cognitive found some typically common ground when discussing the "here and today" scenarios with answers to help elevate the symptoms. Many (C. B. T. ) treatments have been endorsed by the health care trend on evidence based treatment, on the effectiveness of specific treatment for symptom based diagnoses.
Research has looked at depressogenic schemata and that faulty cognitions may precipitate depression which includes been learnt and left dormant until activated by stress.
Haaga & Beck (1992) Have suggested that several types of stressors that could activate dysfunctional beliefs in people. Such as for example sociotropic individuals could be stressed by rejections by others. Autonomous individuals may become stressed due to failing of reaching their targets.
Teasdale (1988) Differential activation hypothesis, talks about the probability of increased accessibility of negative thoughts after an abrupt mood change may describe why some individuals have persistent depression while others only have momentary depression.
Mary Jones (1924) her focus on the unlearning of fears in children enabled Abraham Low(1973) to develop cognitive training approaches for patients carrying out a stay static in a psychiatric institution.
Seligman & Maler (1967) conducted a similar experiment as that of Pavlov and his dogs. This experiment gave pain to the animals to prevent them leaving after been given the possibility to leave they found that the dogs had "learned helplessness" and had resigned themselves that there is no escape.
Anon. (2010), Psychological medicine, the authors found few well controlled studies of the (C. B. T. ) in depression, they did find the idea to be beneficial however the effect was small.
Freud was credited with the invention in psychodynamic theories and psychoanalysis. He states that the mind is segmented in to the I. D. E. G. O. &, the Super Ego. Each has its own function to permit the mind to work efficiently, if the I. D and Super Ego enter into conflict with one another the balance then becomes uneven after that it causes a state of repression. Without addressing this first it isn't possible to solve depression according to this theory. Psychodynamic theory has already established to evolve itself in order to become scientific, and to attain more credibility.
Freud (1917) psychodynamic method of his study in "Mourning and Melancholia" Freud noted that a similarity occurs between the grieving that incorporates the loss of someone you care about with the symptoms of depression.
Beck & Young's (1978) study of students show that we all will suffer some of the symptoms for depression.
Leichsenring between (1974&2010) studies done in this time around frame through Psychodynamic approach and behavioural approach conclude that both approaches are effective in treatment of personality disorders. However because analyses were limited, these studies can only just be recognised as preliminary results.
Crook & Elist (1980) they disagree with the notion that a lack of a loved one will lead to depression.
Davis & Neale (1990) Suggests that if anger accumulates within, why would a depressed individual remove their anger on close family or friend, as this might alienate them. If as suggested by Freud's theory that people need to keep a confident reinforcement relationship.
Weissman &Paykel (1974) have reported with evidence that occurs and anger is targeted at relatives and buddies.
Going through the cognitive behaviour route is an extended and lengthy process. Even after the patients have learned to comprehend the underlying mental dysfunction they then have to undergo the procedure of replacing the dysfunctional cognitive. Which is a slow and difficult procediure?
Psychological theories provide evidence as to why people believe, think and feel just how they do. They consider our personalities, early experience and our ability to connect to each other. Psychological theory's eminent these facts within the depression progress. Freud noted that depression can be attributed to excessive grief of a loved one. He states that actual loss and symbolic loss permit the re-experience of childhood. However if this is so wouldn't it affect everybody just as, feuds theory is very subjective as it assumes all humans are alike and there for haven't any individual identity.
There a wide range of explanations that are categorized as this approach which could explain as to why a person develops depressive symptoms. Psychodynamic have for some time believed that depression was caused by anger converted into self hatred
The theories that this assignment has viewed are based on psychological therapies and mainly done on the back of other studies it's difficult to find solid scientific evidence as which approach is best. ("Anger turned inwards"). There is disagreements within the psychodynamic approach as to which subject material is the most important to concentrate on and which methods to use. This has bought about several separate theories as to who and just why someone gets depressed.
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