The structure of conscious images (according to AN Leontiev)
The foregoing gives the impression that we have come to the solution of the problem of consciousness. But, alas, it only seemed to us. Consciousness has slipped away from us, as the soul has constantly escaped from scientific analysis. We never got the main thing - the description of the phenomenon of consciousness, from which any analysis should begin. If consciousness is part of the psyche (even higher, even if it is special), then we must see the differences of this part from the rest of the psyche. What new appears in the psyche as a process and result, when it becomes consciousness? What they have in common is that they open the outside world to the subject, but what is special about the psyche when it becomes consciousness and begins to reveal to the subject not only the world but the content of one's own psyche (ie itself)? What is the peculiarity of the discovery of the external world in unconscious sensual images and in a conscious image?
Perhaps, we will be helped by a comparison of sensory sensory-perceptual images and images, constructed and presented to us in consciousness? Such an analysis would give us differences in images, but there is one difficulty that prevents it from doing so. The fact is that we know the world only through our conscious images. Unconscious sensual images we do not observe and can not compare them with conscious images. A conscious image is, most likely, not just sensory, which is given to us in consciousness, but a new image, consciously and intentionally constructed by the subject of activity under other rules. The primary sensory image is intended to reflect not the world and the environment, as they are, but only important for life objective conditions of activity. A conscious conceptual image must give us a correct knowledge of the structure of the world. So a direct comparison of the sensory-perceptual sensory image and the image of the sensually conscious is impossible and one must look for detours to see the differences.
Let's try to turn to the structure of a conscious image. AN Leont'ev describes the structure of consciousness, but from the text of his book it is clear that this is a question of the structure of the conscious image. Therefore, when VP Zinchenko begins to analyze the structure of conscious movement, he is forced to replace the first component of the image - sensory tissue - with biodynamic tissue.
We note that AN Leontiev distinguishes three components of the conscious sensory image: sensory tissue, meaning, and personal meaning.
Sensitive fabric of a conscious image
Sensual tissue is the primary subjective experience of a certain modality, on which, as on the basis, a sensory-perceptual image of objects is constructed, i.e. a certain subject content is formed on the sensory tissue, given by the ecology and the corresponding activity of the living being.
There are rules for constructing some properties of the image, determined by the environment and the laws of physics. In particular, visual perception begins with the processing of an image of an object turned upside down due to the laws of optics on the human retina, then an image of the object adequate to the environment is constructed, where the upper part of the object, as in life, appears at the top. These rules are either given by genetics, or are the result of early learning, but in a person's relationship, "sensory tissue is the subject matter" Do not be rigidly assigned once and for all. When the conditions of perception are changed, appropriate corrections are made to the process of constructing the image of the object, ensuring an adequate and habitual perception of the environment for the activity.
For example, Stretton glasses turn the image (change top and bottom) and on the retina of the eye the image is straight. As a consequence, a person sees objects turned upside down & quot ;. Sensual tissue is not amenable to correction - subjectively experienced picture appears automatically in accordance with the image on the retina. And if a person stops his activity and movement in space (and it's impossible to walk in an environment where everything is visually turned up, without help), then he sees everything in an inverted form. But if, with the help of another person, the subject with the glasses of Stratton lives a normal life before his eyes, actively moving around in the environment, then after a while (several days) he suddenly starts to see everything "correctly", i.e. as well as all other people. There is a reorganization of the process of conscious perception. Activity in the new conditions gives new criteria for constructing an adequate, more accurately plausible, image. The removal of glasses after this can lead to a new reversal of the images, which quickly disappears, and some subjects with glasses on their eyes begin after that to see at will their objects then directly, then upside down.
In this restructuring, the main place belongs to the active movement of man in space and the adequate use of objects, however, first with the help of another person providing correct behavior and confirming the adequacy of actions with objects. Similar results were obtained with other distortions of the conditions of perception.
A person is wearing glasses, breaking Straight lines drawn on paper, and force him to track the lines with a pointer. When following a pointer on the broken part of the subject's line is punished, and encouraged, if he, contrary to what seems to be a pointer in the real direction of the line. After a while, a person begins to see the lines without distortion.
Animals in a distorted vision freeze, not trying to act, or constantly fail - the chicken with glasses shifting the target to the side, continues to constantly peck away from the grain lying in front of her.
Experiments with a pseudoscope have shown that a person builds, for example, visual images not in accordance with the laws of optics, how a sensory sensory-perceptual image is constructed under terrestrial conditions, but in accordance with the general principles of the device of the world in which he believes. Therefore, the likelihood rule, i. following these principles, wins in a conflict between the optics of perception and the known principles of the device of the world.
For example, when a subject looks through a pseudoscope on top of a cup of water, then according to the laws of optics, the cup is seen as a bottom to the person. But in a cup of water, which according to the laws of physics can not hold onto a convex surface. Consciousness finds an outlet in the transformation of water into jelly, adhered to the surface of the cup. The examples of perception in the "Ames room" are also indicative. or perception through a pseudo-mask of face mask and a person's real face. Face Mask is evolved when viewed through a pseudoscope, and the person's real face never.
The same non-rigid relations exist between the sensory tissue and the content of consciousness, its fullness of knowledge about the world. For conceptual knowledge, sensory fabric is, first of all, a means of delivering information about objects (about their changes with a purposefully organized interaction of objects). Therefore, deafblind people, trained to receive information through the tactile canal (other sensory tissue), can achieve the same success in their development as people with normal vision and hearing. This is proved by the examples of E. Keller, O. Skorokhodova, L. Suvorov, S. Sirotkin - people who lost sight and hearing in early childhood. Special education allowed them to get a good education and live a full life. Of course, the defects of their sensorics affect sensory-conscious images - they do not have color images, they can not tell about the shades of red and green, the tone of the voice, but their ideas about the structure of the world differ from those of other people only as variations in the norm. >
A. N. Leontiev believed that the function of sensory tissue in consciousness is to provide a sense of the reality of the perceived world. This opinion he tries to confirm with the data of perception of the world from sappers, who lost the mines of hands and eyes as a result of the explosion. After the operation to form from the radius of the arm, the pincer with the change in the position of the muscles of the shoulder girdle, the patients begin to complain about the loss of the sense of the reality of the world. But such a result can be explained by a violation of tactile sensitivity, which, to a greater extent than other types of sensitivity, gives the impression of a real object in the environment. The action of the new limb with the object does not coincide with the previous experience, and this can be the reason for losing the sense of the reality of the world.
The function of sensory tissue in a conscious perceptual image, perhaps another, is to be a sensory language for describing the sensory side of a conscious image or, in other words, the sensory "screen" on which the "embroidered" pattern is constructed. perceived object.
Also We Can Offer!
- Argumentative essay
- Best college essays
- Buy custom essays online
- Buy essay online
- Cheap essay
- Cheap essay writing service
- Cheap writing service
- College essay
- College essay introduction
- College essay writing service
- Compare and contrast essay
- Custom essay
- Custom essay writing service
- Custom essays writing services
- Death penalty essay
- Do my essay
- Essay about love
- Essay about yourself
- Essay help
- Essay writing help
- Essay writing service reviews
- Essays online
- Fast food essay
- George orwell essays
- Human rights essay
- Narrative essay
- Pay to write essay
- Personal essay for college
- Personal narrative essay
- Persuasive writing
- Write my essay
- Write my essay for me cheap
- Writing a scholarship essay