Structures of the human psyche
Melanie Klein (1882-1960) is a representative of English psychoanalysis. After the formation of the classical psychoanalysis of Freud, its further development went immediately in several directions. One of them is neo-Freudianism (G. Allport, E. Fromm, K. Horney). Supporters of this direction reproached Freud with the fact that he paid little attention to social aspects. The founder of psychoanalysis mainly dealt with an individual person, a patient. Therefore, he believed that the laws of the human psyche discovered by him are inherent in all people, regardless of the culture to which it belongs. For example, any child - an Australian, an African, a Portuguese or an Indian - goes through the so-called love triangle (below we come across the term "triangulation") - the infant and his parents. Neo-Freudians also believed that a huge role in the formation of the human mental world is played by social factors, culture as a whole. They, in fact, belong to the creation of social psychology, which began to study the mass-psychological processes taking place in the world.
In the United States, so-called cultural anthropology has become very popular. In the broadest sense of the word - a complex of knowledge about man as the creator and bearer of culture. Man is considered here as a biological being, whose nature is transformed and determined by culture. Cultural anthropology synthesizes the data of natural science, psychology, philosophy and the humanities (history, ethnography, ethnology, art history, religious studies, etc.). The specificity of cultural anthropology as a field of scientific knowledge about man consisted in the fact that it was interested in the human structures manifested in culture - the structure of human consciousness, psyche, thinking, universal or individual people. At the same time, cultural anthropologists asserted that human culture can be learned in various ways, both through searching for basic human structures for cognition of culture, and through cultural forms for thinking. So there were theories that consider humans only a more complex animal - the culture then appears as a complicated biological life.
Another direction in psychoanalysis is related to ego psychology. Freud showed that in the structure of a person's personality, in other words, his psyche, three layers can be distinguished: the unconscious, the conscious and the superconscious. Freud paid special attention to that psychic instance, which is called conscious or I am. There were serious discrepancies about the problem of understanding I . Ego psychologists believed that Freud paid little attention to this important part of the human psyche. He mainly studied the unconscious or the superconscious. About I as such wrote less. This psychic instance was presented by Freud as a shaky concept. It could be a victim of parental programming or a consequence of the dictates of the unconscious. According to American psychoanalysts, Freud did not sufficiently study Ya. Therefore a new direction arose-ego psychology.
Another direction has developed in England. Here there was a school of D. Winnicott and M. Klein. Klein led a discussion with Anna Freud. Anna Freud believed that in child psychoanalysis the same principles apply as in the adult. Klein considered children's psychoanalysis to be an independent field of theory and practice. Klein studied the first year of the child's life in more detail. And then it was discovered that the child's well-being in these months is extremely far from idyll. Frankly, he is on the verge of life and death, even if his physical health is not threatened.
Moreover, it is in the first half of the year that the most important structures of the human psyche are laid, its mental health and future destiny are largely determined. This, of course, contradicts ordinary observation and even common sense. Here lies the baby, he smiles, moves his legs and arms, stretches to the surrounding objects. Where, in general, is the deadly danger?
The answer is simple. The threat arises from the fact that parents generally do not understand the child's mental world. Everything that happens in the family, they evaluate by the standards of everyday meaning, considering the baby a small adult. But this attitude to the child is monstrous! He really turns out to be in an extremely dangerous zone, because he does not find an adequate answer to his inquiries. Do not they feed him, do not play him, do not like him? Of course, they do. But not enough to dispel the main bewilderment that is born in his tiny soul: why did my mother give birth to me, and now she wants me to die. He's helpless, he can not survive without maternal affection.
And that's what happens. The child has three options for survival or, conversely, capitulation to threats. The first is real death. If my mother wants me to die, I have no choice. The infant dies from the feeling of its uselessness, from hopelessness. An autopsy shows that he died not from a disease, not from a physiological cause. Death came because of psychological discomfort, because of excruciating stress.
But there is another option. The baby is plunged into depression. He survives, but for the rest of his life he maintains a certain masochistic position. My mother wanted me to die, but I could not fulfill her punishment. That's why I live and I constantly complain, cannibal, vyakayu. The world, it turns out, is not at all so comfortable. You can adapt to it only in one way - to show pity for yourself. Then in adulthood it is easy to find out in the line of M. Yu. Lermontov: "I do not expect anything from life". Or in Esenin's sadness: "In the evening blue, in the evening I was young once beautiful and young." In the ultimate version, we have a masochist in front of us, who survives by pouring salt on wounds ...
It turns out that there is one more option for survival. The child does not die, does not become depressed. He just gets used to the fact that in life one with another does not close. Mom then appears, then disappears. The maternal breast then generously gives milk, or it simply greed and retains it in itself. But sometimes, though, it is nourishing and funny. Although, to be honest, this situation is simply absurd. It turns out that man is the only creature on earth that can exist in a situation of absurdity. In later life, he will find that life does not fall under us. It is contradictory, full of inconsistencies and various kinds of absurdities. A person is intelligent, but often acts irrationally. People create new things, but they destroy it. Man is an amazing creature. He understands everything, but does the opposite. This, however, is the thought of Socrates.
About absurdity as the basis of existence we have already spoken. Especially noted here, perhaps, Albert Camus. A person lives, but his life is colorless, not interesting. "Rise, tram, four hours in the office or at the factory, lunch, tram, four hours of work, dinner, sleep; Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday, all in the same rhythm ... Man, like the Greek Sisyphus, punished by the gods, is doomed to an endless repetition of the same meaningless action. The same Sisyphus, just descended from the height of the mountains and exchanged the stone for the same meaningless existence among the people - this is the "Stranger".
The "outsider", the native child of the sense of absurdity, anger the still awakened society by the fact that it is completely devoid of normal human experiences and feelings: it does not touch the death of the mother, it is capable of an absurd murder and is deprived of the guilt and guilt of conscience, its leaves indifferent thought of his own death. The inner world of an outsider as if in a state of emotional rest. He seems to be somewhat like an autistic being in a spellbound calm.
Merceau only loses his temper when he is visited in the cell on the eve of execution by a priest and starts a conversation about God. These speeches literally blow up the fortress of his cold indifference, and for the first time in the whole story he is discharged by a full-fledged, emotional, angry monologue: "I was right, I am right now, always right," he shouted feverishly, "all the same. Nothing matters, and I firmly knew why ... That to me the death of others, the love of the mother, that to me God, the life paths that I choose, the fate I prefer, once I have been destined for one single destiny, to me and to billions of others elected, to all who, like him, call themselves my brothers. Others are also sentenced to death. " It is here, in my opinion, that where from, like a cancerous tumor, this new sense of absurdity grows into the world. It is a place in a man that God once occupied and filled life with meaning, creating in it the horizon of infinity. Now there is a gaping hole in this place, and this nothing has become a hole in the foundation of the eternal human being forever.
The sense of absurdity is inescapable in a world devoid of the Absolute, in a world abandoned by God. If the exit and the birth of a man from the original absurdity, from the boiler of hallucinations, was associated with self-restraint, with the imposition of prohibitions, taboos, with the differentiation of the permitted and unauthorized space of the sacral and profane, and hence with God, or, if you will, the creation of a god, god totems, taboos, who will deny their constitutive role for primitive consciousness), then a new confluence of absurdity is associated with the irrecoverable loss of these meaningful acquisitions. As a result, a person encounters the uncovered unreasonableness of the world, with the inhumanity of man, the meaninglessness of life in the horizon of the inevitability of death.2
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