Study on the effects of occupational therapy

Occupational remedy (OT) is approximately helping folks of all ages do and enhance their ability to perform their daily activities that occupy their time in their environment (Hussey, Sabonis-Chafee, & O'Brien, 2007). The environment to which individuals may decide to perform tasks could maintain home, work, university or community settings (Hagedorn, 2000). The roles of occupational therapists (OTs) are to work with individuals to help them achieve a satisfied and satisfied express in life (Crepeau, Cohn, & Schell, 2009). Activities or interventions enable you to achieve useful results that promote health, prevent damage or disability so that individual may become 3rd party because of this. OTs utilize a range of folks that may have conditions that are emotionally, actually, developmentally, socially or psychologically disadvantaged (Crepeau, et al. , 2009). Therefore they help individuals to develop, recover or maintain their skills to have the ability to perform activities that they consider important.

The reason OTs wants to determine in regards to a person's occupation is to determine what is important to the average person and how they may execute these occupations and how each one of these occupations contribute to the higher good of health. Someone's occupational performance is inspired by their health and the necessity for personal satisfaction in what they actually (Crepeau, et al. , 2009). That is why OTs may perform interviews before implementing interventions. It really is a means for OTs to gather educated information regarding to the needs of individuals and what they find important in their lives. The original interview would be about gathering basic information about the average person and going right through name, age, profession and what important roles they may have in their lives. As OTs, it is very important that target is client-centred and allow clients to evaluate their performance and the value of jobs in their lives.

The Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance (PEOP) model is a client-centred model that is employed to increase the performance of people in their daily lives (Christiansen & Baum, 2005). The model originated in 1985 and was first published in 1991. The PEOP model includes the connections of occupation, performance and involvement that are participating between the person and environment when they perform their activities in their daily lives. The model discusses the non-public factors and environmental factors that support enable or limit the performance of individual to their activities, jobs and jobs that can be found in their lives. In the PEOP model, OT intervention is a way of using an array of client-centred strategies that hook up the average person or group to develop or use sources that enable them to efficiently perform necessary and significant occupations. It requires into consideration that satisfaction of performing occupations is related to the individual or group goals and environmental factors that could or might not inhibit contribution.

The PEOP model has four major components. These four components are occupations, performance, person and environment (Christiansen & Baum, 2005). It describes what folks want or need to do in their daily lives (occupation), the work of accomplishing the occupation (performance), and how psychological, physiological, neurobehavioral, cognitive and spiritual factors (person) combine with the location the occupation is conducted (environment) influence success. The average person ability or skills is what determine if the individual is qualified to do what they need to to meet personal needs. The individual must employ resources that are available within the environment to effectively meet these needs. The model also offers the fact that the situations where people feel success also help them feel good about themselves. So that it functions as a motivator to permit individuals to handle challenges with confidence. It is said in Christiansen & Baum, that "fulfilment comes both from thoughts of mastery as well as the achievement of goals which have personal interpretation" (Christiansen & Baum, 2005). This indicates that individual will feel more completed doing occupations that they like doing which is important to them, somewhat than something they don't find important.

According to Henry & Kramer, interviewing is "a shared verbal experience, jointly made by the interviewer and the interviewee, prepared around the requesting and responding to of questions" (Crepeau, et al. , 2009). Asking good questions is not a natural trend and requires practice (Miller, 2009). That is why communication skills are essential in interviewing. Interviewing requires three key elements, questioning, active tuning in and interpreting body language (O'Toole, 2008; Williams, 1997). The aim of an interview is to collectively obtain information, offer advice, support and discuss treatment (Williams, 1997). Through the process, OTs can establish and keep maintaining a romantic relationship with your client. It's important in any interview to prepare yourself and consider that the spot that the interview will need place will established the mood. When the interview is conducted in an office, it can provide sense of formality and when the interview is conducted in a center, it can be associated with health issues. Individual's reaction to these different settings may be associated to past experiences that they may have encountered before. Their reaction can vary and since an interviewer, awareness should be accepted. The positioning of the interview can also supply the reason for the interview so that it is important that suitable location be chosen. You will find three phases to a interview; period 1 is the introductory stage, phase 2 is the working phase and stage 3 is the termination.

Effective communication requires shared understanding from both interviewer and interviewee. Medical researchers must ensure that clients understand the meaning and reason for interview and just why it is conducted. The interview requires that information be shared, there's a goal to reach same understanding, understanding of backdrop and culture, a willingness to understand factors of view, admiration for personal and other and show empathy when appropriate (Higgs, Ajjawi, McAllister, Trede, & Loftus, 2008).

Communication skills required in an interview include verbal communication, non-verbal communication and productive listening. A good example of verbal communications is the effective use of conversation to ask appropriate questions and the composition of vocabulary used (Williams, 1997). The composition of the terminology is just how that words are put together to create sentences to give information or shop around. Verbal communications are ways of individuals expressing their ideas, principles and emotions, give description, provide information and solve problems (O'Toole, 2008; Stein-Parbury, 2006; Williams, 1997). Non-verbal communication is conversing without using words expressing oneself. These could include eye-contact, cosmetic appearance, body postures and behaviours, speech and volume alterations and physical space (Egan, 2007; O'Toole, 2008; Stein-Parbury, 2006; Williams, 1997). Active listening requires interviewer to actively listen and give verbal and non-verbal responses to show they are listening. Interviewer may use non-verbal responses known as SOLER to engage in the interview. SOLER stands for sit squarely, available posture, lean toward the client, eye contact and relax. Prompts may also be found in non-verbal response to encourage interviewee to discuss further or know that you will be present. Verbal response includes using the three R's; restatement, representation and re-clarification.

Phase 1 of the interview is the introductory stage. This is where introductions and purpose of the interview is discussed. Permission was asked to utilize client's first name to be more comfortable and generate a relax environment. In this particular period of the interview, the client and interviewer is sitting squarely facing one another in a little quiet room. The client is actively hearing the information advised. Her activities included eye-contact, sitting squarely, using prompts such as nodding and 'yep' as indications. There was a little of closed postured, clasped hands and fidgety shown by consumer at the start that might be attributed to nervousness and doubt of interview. As the interviewer, verbal communication is essential in relaying the info about the goal of the interview. That's where effective verbal communication is necessary. Effective use of speech was present however the structure of terms needs to be improved. After explanation of what an OTs does indeed, interviewer asked "Do you kind of get what I'm hoping to state?" in an uncertain speech. Interviewer can have rephrased it in a more confident reassurance tone of voice and asked if your client understood the info and whether she'd like to ask any questions. The design of terminology used here could be distinctions between sociable contexts. The usage of formal language might not exactly be used frequently in daily lives which will make the interviewer framework of language appear a bit informal when asked. Being unsure of your own questions also leads customer to understand that it was okay to consent since it can be an uncertain question. The object of any interviewer is to be confident and also express clearly and concisely the questions asked. Interviewer demonstrated cosmetic expressions and hands gestures while detailing. This may be an indication of nervousness or a habit that the interviewer may have got. Despite the fact that eye-contact was made out of client, SOLER was not effectively used. In the beginning, interviewer is sitting squarely, leaning ahead and managed eye-contact but had not been in an open relaxed posture. This is related to nervousness as interview progress; interviewer became more wide open and laid back.

Phase 2 of the interview is involved in requesting relevant questions to obtain a clearer picture of client's profession and history. It really is where most information is accumulated and requires the use of a variety of communication skills. SOLER was looked after throughout the interview by the interviewer and verbal prompts was used at appropriate situations to validate information that customer had said. Nodding and hands gestures were used frequently to encourage consumer to continue communicating and writing information. Within an interview, a range of questioning style is used. A good example of an wide open question is "How do you feel needing to travel one and half hour to access uni?" These types of available questions allow clients to sophisticated more on details and give indication to their emotions. Even though closed questions aren't desirable, interviewer does use them. Among such is "Just how long does one drive to uni?" There is merely one answer possible and does not employ consumer views or feelings in this example. Probing questions was also lacking in this interview, interviewer did not employ this questioning style to seek out specific information. One example that is viewed is "Is usually that the only problem you have as being a university student?" The question is employed to question customer if the particular problem given was the only one present to being a learner. Reflective questions was used to reveal a topic again for clarifications, "So far you've explained that you will be a student, sweetheart so you like to keep active, will there be any other activities that you love doing?" Some bad examples of questioning styles that needs to be prevented that was used in the interview was multiple and leading questions. "Have you got any other job route you want to take after learning this level? Or do you want to just find a job afterwards and be pleased with that?" The questions will not allow customer to answer and also leads them to answer in a certain way you have asked.

Non-verbal communication skills is seen in eye-contact, cosmetic manifestation, gestures, body postures and head movements. Throughout the interviewing process, eye-contact was maintained in customer and interviewer. In a few culture, eye-contact is not seen as appropriate when speaking with elders (Crepeau, et al. , 2009). Eye-contact can also become uncomfortable if used with strangers so you are expected to keep focus for a period. As OTs, it is suitable to keep an wide open view of clients and know that depending on the culture and ideals, they may execute and act in different ways. Facial expressions on the other palm are what characterise a person. It is an important aspect of expressing feelings and expressing how we feel. Client used teeth as a good feedback when discussing her family and boyfriend. It is signs that these will be the things that the client values and discover fun in. When she was doubtful of her answers, her eyebrows would be brought up upwards. Facial expression belongs to individuals and each individual has their own way of expressing themselves. Gestures are also a form of communication and are seen in the activity of mind, hands and body parts. It just acts as techniques individual might use these parts to emphasise and strengthen information. Body postures identifies the positioning of the body and limbs (Williams, 1997). The postures adopted by your client was just a bit leaned forward back with arms put together before her laps. The interviewer on the other palm has her body leaned frontward towards your client and arms resting on legs to appeal to the book before her. The importance of postures can provide indications to specific emotions. A slump make and crossed biceps and triceps could indicate insufficient interest or boredom.

Phase 3 is the termination where information is summarized and clarified, customer is thanked and ending of interview. Interviewer effectively used all stated techniques in this last phase however the language and structure of conversation used could be increased. This could come with practice and experience. The tone of voice used in the interview also gives indication to the thoughts that is conveyed by clients and really should be found when possible. The speed of speech or tone of voice express feeling and present information about attitudes to certain things. Each individual have their characterised words that distinguished us from someone else. It is with our voice that we makes it possible for our emotions and emotions be conveyed.

Interviewing requires multiple communication skills and practice to do a good interview. Communication skills aren't always verbal but are the non-verbal communication that is portrayed through facial appearance, gestures and eye-contact. Every individual have their own way of expressing themselves whether verbally or non-verbally. It really is a good interviewer that can pick up on cues so they can modify to client when interviewing. Interviewing requires interviewer to positively pay attention, question and empathize with clients. By using PEOP model, the interview is able to be completed and up to date information is accumulated on the person, job, environment and performance.

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