Chapter 5. Success and failure in activities
Everyone is worth as much as what he's bothering about.
How to swim, and you can break.
United States folk proverb
The concept of activity and its structure
In 1956, at McGill University, a group of psychologists conducted an experiment with volunteers who had to stay as long as possible in a special cell, where they were as much as possible shielded from the outside world and were in a state of complete rest-no activity. Scientists were struck by the fact that most of the subjects were unable to withstand such conditions for more than 2-3 days.
A healthy normal person should be active. It's not for nothing that we use synonyms for the term "life", "life activity", "activity". In the ordinary usage of all kinds of human activity is activity. In the psychology of activity, great importance is attached. A.N. Leontiev believed that through the activity there is a mental "in general". He laid the foundations of the activity approach in psychology.
The psychological structure of the activity is described in detail in the works of A.N. Leontief and his students. The structure of activity can be represented as follows:
So, the source, the beginning of any activity are the needs. The need is the experience of need in what is necessary to maintain the life and development of the person's personality.
Experienced need makes a person look for the object of her satisfaction. The object of need is its motive. A motive is a certain conscious need. On the basis of the same need, different motives can be formed. This or that motive encourages a person to set a goal. The goal is presented to man as an imaginary result of activity, and then a person begins to think about the conditions necessary to achieve the goal. The goal can be broken down into tasks-the individual steps that must be taken towards achieving the ultimate goal.
Activity consists of actions and operations. One and the same activity can be realized by different actions and operations, i.e. You can achieve your goal in many ways.
Often we do not think about the basis of an iceberg, which we call activity, i.e. we see, we analyze only the actions and operations themselves - the tip of the iceberg. If we want to know why a person does this, what actions one can expect from him, then we must understand the motives for his actions.
Impact of Motivation on Activity
In psychology, a theory of motivation to achieve success in various activities has been created and elaborated. The founders are American scientists D. McClelland, D. Atkinson and the German scientist H. Hekhausen.
A person has two different motives associated with activities aimed at achieving success. This is the motive for success and the motive for avoiding failure. The behavior of people with these polar motifs is radically different.
People motivated to succeed, usually they win, put in the activity some positive goal, the achievement of which is regarded as a success. All efforts are aimed only at success in their activities. They are confident in the approval of their actions and from the activities receive positive emotions. Individuals of this type are usually active, initiative, if obstacles are encountered - they are looking for ways to overcome them. Productivity and activity are less dependent on external control. They are also characterized by persistence in achieving the goal. They tend to plan their future at great intervals. Prefer to take on average for difficulty or slightly inflated, albeit achievable, obligations. They set realistic goals before themselves, if at risk, then prudently. They are prone to reassess their failures in the light of the successes achieved. When performing tasks of a problem nature, as well as in the conditions of a time deficit, the effectiveness of the activity, as a rule, improves. People aimed at achieving success tend to perceive and experience time as "purposeful and quick", and not aimlessly current.
The attractiveness of the task for them increases in proportion to its complexity. In particular, this is manifested in voluntary tasks, not imposed from outside. In case of an unsuccessful task execution, its attractiveness remains at the same level.
Otherwise, people behave themselves, motivated to avoid failure (losing). They are of little initiative. For them, the goal in the activity is to avoid failure, not to successfully achieve the goal. A person who is motivated to fail is not confident in himself, afraid of criticism, does not believe in success, avoids the work connected with a possible failure in every possible way. Such people are inclined to perceive and experience time as aimlessly current. In general, these people are life losers.
The winners correctly assess their abilities, successes and failures, choose a profession corresponding to their knowledge, skills and skills.
Otherwise, they evaluate their abilities as losing players. Often, they are inadequately determined in life - this manifests itself in the choice of a profession, where preference is given either to too easy or too complicated professions. Have an overestimated or underestimated self-esteem, an unrealistic level of claims.
A person who aspires to success in activity, after a failure usually returns to the solution of this problem, and interest to this task increases. People behave in a completely different way, oriented to failure: they have an interest in the task after failure.
Those who strive for success, evaluate their achievements as something natural and depending only on their skills, knowledge and skills. Avoiding failures turn to the analysis of abilities only in case of failure, and explain their achievements by coincidence, while those striving for success explain the failure in this way.
The reason for the formation of the leading motivation is to be found in our childhood, in the family, in the immediate environment.
The lack of responsiveness of parents to the need for caress, caring, ignoring the child, conflicts in the family, rudeness, illness, long troubles, excessive physical work, traumatic events are some of the many factors that shape the loser's motivation. These reasons restrain the activity of the individual. Usually losing people like to feel sorry for themselves, to shift responsibility to others, to complain about life and do nothing. Their typical statements are:
- If only I married someone else ...
- If only I had another job ...
- If only I graduated from the institute ...
- If only I was beautiful ...
- If only I was born rich ... etc. and the like.
No one is 100% losing or winning, but anyone who takes a serious and responsible attitude to their lives can cultivate the motivation for achieving success.
Start working on yourself with an assessment of who you are. Assess the feelings for yourself, for what you have achieved in life, and your relationship to others by placing your score (X) on the winning/losing scale.
1) I feel like I'm losing in life
2) Achieved in life a little
I feel like I'm winning in life
Reached a lot in life
Are you satisfied with where you set yourself up? If not, make a list of what you would like to change. From this list, select the three main tasks and achieve them. ^
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