A symbol as an expression of spiritual experience
In the book "Ion KG Jung turned to the psychology of Christianity, and Job - in his way, the forerunner of Christ. They are connected by the idea of suffering. Christ is a suffering servant of the Lord, so is Job. Christ suffers for the sins of the world, and this answer is justified for all suffering in Christ. And this inevitably leads to the question: on whom lies the blame for these sins? In the end, the world and his sins were created by God, and He manifested himself in Christ to share the sufferings of mankind.
"In Aion", - writes Jung, - I touch a difficult topic about the light and dark sides of the Divine image. I refer to the "God's wrath" on the commandment about "the fear of God", on "Do not lead us into temptation." The duality of God played a decisive role in the "Book of Job." Job thinks that God at some point will be on his side - against God, and this tragic contradiction finds expression here. This will become the theme of my "Answer to Job."
Jung was forced to give an answer to the religious problems of our time. He did this in a fairly emotional form. Jung chose this form of interpretation of the symbols intentionally, so as not to give the impression that he would like to expose some of the eternal truths to the public. Theologians criticized Jung, but he remained faithful to his chosen method of communicating with other people. It was a way of acquiring spiritual experience through symbols.
The symbol plays a very significant role in modern culture. Let's take as an example the novel of Irish prose writer James Joyce (1882-1941) "Ulysses". This work became an encyclopedia of modernism. In the book, the narrative of which is stretched for 735 hours, days or years, consisting of only one very ordinary, stupid day - June 16, 1904 in Dublin. Strictly speaking, nothing substantial is happening in it. This flow begins and ends in Nothing. The novel was conceived as an artistic parallel "Odyssey Homer. This parallelism is a typical phenomenon of modern aesthetics. Each episode of the ancient Greek epic corresponds to a certain section of the Joyce novel. Myth is modernized, turning into a narrative about the way of life and customs of the representatives of the newest civilization. The writer tries to confirm the idea of the repetition of stories of mythology, history and literature.
The main characters in the novel are three. Behind each of them is fixed not only own internal monologue ( stream of consciousness ), but also a cultural-mythological parallel. Leopold Bloom, an advertising agent, a Jew by nationality, is in fact Ulysses, his wife Molly-Penelope, Stephen Dedalus, a novice writer, whom Blum patronizes, is an analogue of Telemachus, the son of Ulysses ("Odyssey").
Compared to the homeric epic, eventful, in "Ulysses almost nothing happens. Bloom travels around Dublin for his business affairs, meets Stephen, who is permeated with paternal sympathy, saves him during a massacre in a brothel. The wife of Bloom, Molly's beauty, is far from faithful to her husband as Penelope. However, the novel ends with the reconciliation of Bloom and Molly.
Behind this external eventlessness, a whole gamut of human qualities and feelings: the frailty and angularity of Stephen, who derailed his parents' plans to make him a Catholic priest; benevolence and vulnerability of Bloom; Molly's femininity. The author shows humanism first of all in relation to the Jew Leopold Bloom, who got strong from the Irish fundamentalists.
Analyzing the novel, Jung tries to reveal the symbols that have been embodied in him. He asks: "Is it right to conclude that the words and pictures unfolding before our eyes with a motley carpet should be understood in the final analysis symbolically?" The symbol, the analyst emphasizes, is not an allegory, but an expression of the essence, which is incomprehensible otherwise. However, Jung has a suspicion: is it really a symbol? In this case, in the bizarre intricacies of the text, some hidden meaning would flicker, mysterious sounds would sound that would recall memories of other times and other spaces. Before our eyes, we would see refined dreams, or the peoples forgotten by us, who had forgotten the darkness of non-existence, would again appear. However, judging by everything, this is not a dream or a revelation coming out of the unconscious. Jung notes that Joyce's prudence and deliberate prejudice are expressed more explicitly in the book than Zarathustra Nietzsche or in the second part of "Faust" Goethe. This, apparently, explains the flaws of Ulysses on the part of symbolism.
It's not difficult to admit a hidden presence in Ulysses archetypes, supposing, let us say, that Daedalus and Bloom represent the age-old figures of the spiritual and carnal man, in the intricacies of Mrs. Bloom's daily life, Anima appears, Ulysses himself would in this case express the symbolism of the hero. However, according to Jung, the book itself in no way contains clear indications of the legitimacy of such conclusions. "This is clearly not symbolic and every symbolism is opposite."
When we say "symbolic", we point out that in an object, whether it is breath or from the world, lies the immanent essence, incomprehensible and powerful. Man desperately tries to subordinate the mystery confronting him, to catch her with an exact expression. To do this, he must strive with all his thoughts towards this object, so that, having penetrated through the entire diversity of its constituent shells, get to the genuine jewel, jealously hidden in an unknown depth, and take it out to the daylight.
In Ulysses It is possible to come to despair, penetrating through countless shells farther and farther. However, there is nothing here except the lunar cold. Do not, Jung points out, even allow the idea that symbols can be hidden there, somewhere inside, for, yielding to it, our consciousness, again drawn into the spiritual and material world of Mr. Dedal and Mr. Bloom, would be doomed to endless wandering about ten thousand of its surfaces. This is not the plan of Ulysses & quot ;. He wants, like the moon, looking lonely from beyond the bounds of distance, to be a consciousness free from the object, not held by either gods or despicable desires, not driven by hatred, not burdened by convictions or prejudices. Ulysses does not say, but does this: he seeks to release consciousness as a goal, looming loosely about his course. "
Jung perfectly guessed the aesthetics of modernism. Joyce left us with inheritance not only works of ciphers, which continue to beat philologists, culturologists, interpreters, translators, but also perfected the skill of the "stream of consciousness". In the history of literature he entered as one of the "fathers of modernism". The release of consciousness is the cipher of a new aesthetics. But the symbol is different in that it does the same with the unconscious. This is the release of consciousness, this is the depersonalization of the personality and is the Ithaca of the Joyce Odyssey.
Here, as the Swiss psychologist believes, there was a release of the human consciousness and the associated approach to the consciousness of the "divine". This is the basic principle of construction and the highest artistic achievement of Ulysses - is subjected to diabolical distortion in a drunken hell for the brothel fools, when the thought of it is expressed in the shell of traditional verbal formulas. Ulysses, the patient who has wandered many times, aspires to get on his native island, regain himself, while resisting all deviations from his course, and frees himself from the world of buffoons' illusions, upon them "looking from afar" and treating them indifferently. He does exactly what Jesus did or some Buddha did, that is, he overcomes the world of jesters, he is freed from contradictions, thereby carrying out just what was sought also by Faustus.
So thanks to Jung we get an exact criterion that helps us to reveal spirituality, following the symbol. Its purpose is to express the unconscious. Take, for example, the brilliant insights of Jacob Boehme, whose work can reveal the deepest secrets of culturology. Let's put the question this way: what is the source of culture? Reason, human passion, prayerful mood or indomitable life motivation? If we analyze our textbooks on culturology, it is easy to find that they analyze only those works of culture that are created by the human mind.
To create a philosophical treatise or write a symphony, you need to mobilize the creative forces of consciousness. Hence the obvious misconception that culture deals only with rational content. It is easy to see that many researchers in the field of cultural studies joyfully welcome the emergence of science, philosophy and rationality. At the same time in passing they talk about myth, religion, art. These phenomena are referred to as evidence of a naive time, when humanity still harbored illusions and did not have the ability to penetrate the secrets of the universe.
Let's put the question like this: Can you teach culturology, skipping past such archaic phenomena as tradition, mythology, oral folk art? But this is precisely the essence of the knowledge of culture. About the myth, of course, they tell, but only in the historical plan, only to clear the way for the bright light of knowledge. Culture, of course, is universal. It can be assumed that a rational basis is found in it. In other words, it is not difficult to assume that a person builds a culture by preliminary analytical calculation. First, a certain ideal idea appears in the person's head. He carefully pondered, and then implemented in the process of human activity.
Undoubtedly, many cultural phenomena were born as a result of man's original ability to reason and analyze. M. Weber tried to reveal the meaning of such an important cultural term as "rationality". It is such a form of man's relationship to the world, when the power of reason and the person's ability to calculate are recognized. Essentially, it is a technical mind that is indifferent to human goals and values. Weber showed that magic is also, to a certain extent, rationalistic, rational. After all, it is usually aimed at achieving specific goals. With the help of magic, you can ensure a successful hunt or a rich harvest. The magical action in this sense comes close to the rational action. They are both aimed at mastering the world, the forces of nature. Weber believed that this could explain the origin of art.
But Weber did not consider rationality the basis of culture. He paid great attention to the interpretation of the religions of the East and came to the conclusion that rationality is the fate of European civilization. Many phenomena of culture, in his opinion, arise, as they say, not by reason, but by heart. After all, originally music acts as a means of ecstasy, i.e. state of extreme enthusiasm, reaching frenzy. It is also important to assess the brilliant intuition of F. Nietzsche, who saw in ancient culture two principles - the Apollonian and the Dionysian. Rejecting Dionysium by definition, we are struggling to penetrate into the rational core of culture.
Thus, we, culturologists, philosophers, educate spirituality. It is identified with a deep philosophical thought, a scientific discovery, a sober intellect. But in culture there are a lot of phenomena that are born unconscious and do not have rational support. I have already had to write about a tradition that arises anonymously, without the author, but expresses the collective unconscious of people. Tradition is a means of crystallizing the cumulative spiritual experience of mankind. Tradition is the traditions, rituals, norms of behavior, historically developed and passed on from generation to generation, which are found in the socio-cultural heritage. However, a historian or culturologist can hardly name the author of specific rituals, sacrifices, fasting, prayers. All these phenomena are born in the depths of the unconscious life of people. That's why they are in a certain sense nameless ...
The brilliant insights of Jacob Boehme discovered the dual nature of the image of the Godhead and thereby continued to work on the creation of the myth. The symbol, the mandala, which he has drawn, portrays God dual, because his inner circle is divided into two semicircles, standing with his back to back. According to the notions of Christianity, God is integral in each of the Persons of the Trinity, he is also integral in every part of the spilled Holy Spirit. Thus, each person can become part of the total Divine.
From the psychological point of view, the image of the Divine is a visual representation of the basis of the soul. Note that in 1918, Jung, while exploring the collective unconscious, discovered the existence of a central symbol of this kind - a symbol of the mandala. Mandala is an archetypal image, whose existence for centuries is easy to confirm. It means the integrity of the I, or, more simply, the integrity of the basis of the soul. In contrast to other mysterious signs of the mandala, the modernity turns to unity, ie. represents compensation for the split and, accordingly, heralds the overcoming of it. Since this image appears in the collective unconscious, it is omnipresent.
The reasoning about the culture allows you to feel all the facets of the whole, including its "shadows". As a result, a split and confrontation are born, which, in turn, are seeking solutions in a new unity. Mediation in this case carries symbols. The clash between the opposing sides reaches the limit of what is being carried out. Even if the struggle between the two sides is an incomprehensible mishmash of known and unknown data, the symbol is still able to unite them into some kind of integrity. Mandala is the simplest outline of integrity, originally imposed on the imagination, to give an idea of the opposing sides, their struggle and reconciliation.
In the system of logical thinking, opposites do not complement each other. They are called upon to eliminate the contradiction by a certain dominant, to recognize only one of the entities fair or to bring logic to a new stage of understanding. With a symbolic approach, opposites cease to contradict each other. They begin to complement one another and give meaning to integrity.
Jung noted that a man with the power of his reflexive spirit rose above the world of animals. With his help, man conquers nature. Thus, the world becomes a phenomenon, for without knowing reflexion, he would not become such. We do not know, Jung wrote, how far the process of cognition extends and where he will lead people. This process is a kind of innovation in the history of creation, for which there is no analogy. Senselessness is contrary to the fullness of life and therefore means illness. Jung showed that no science can replace a myth and it is impossible to create a myth from any science.
Indeed, the need to create secrets in the primitive stage of development is of vital importance, since a common secret is a means of unification. The symbol connects the divided.
Freud discussed one of the paintings of Leonardo da Vinci: St. Anne with the Virgin Mary and Child Christ. An Austrian psychiatrist showed that Leonardo had two mothers. This story is far from unique in painting. It is enough to point out the impersonal motive that is woven into personal psychology, well known in other fields of knowledge. This is the motif of the dual mother, an archetype, numerous variants of which are found in the field of mythology and comparative religious studies. One can note, for example, a motif of double origin, i.e. origin from terrestrial and divine parents, as in the case of Hercules, who received immortality and was reluctantly adopted by the Hero. What was a myth in Greece was a real ritual in Egypt: the pharaoh was by nature a man and a god. In the maternity wards of the Egyptian temples, the walls depict the second divine conception and the birth of the pharaoh. He is twice born.
In accordance with the early Christian-gnostic idea, the Spirit appeared in the form of a dove and was interpreted as Wisdom and the Mother of God. Thanks to this motif of double birth, today's children, instead of the kind and evil fairies magically adopting them with the help of blessings or curses, have a godfather and a godmother.
The idea of a second birth is found everywhere and at all times. At the earliest stages of the birth of medicine, it (the second birth) was a magical means of healing. In many religions it is the center of mystical experience. This is the key idea in medieval occult philosophy. Finally, it is a childish fantasy that takes place in the innumerable number of children, large and small, who believe that their parents are not real, but only the educators to whom they were transferred. Benvenuto Cellini also thought as he tells about it in his autobiography.
If Leonardo da Vinci really portrayed his two mothers - St. Anna and Mary, he expressed in this way the universal prevalence of this motive. The symbolic stamp discussed in the above-mentioned work of Freud makes this point even more probable. With known reasons, he refers to the Hieroglyphics Gerapollon as the source of the symbol. This book was widely used in the days of Leonardo. There you can read that the vultures are only feminine and symbolize the mother. They start from the wind . This word is pneuma has acquired the meaning of the Spirit mainly under the influence of Christianity. Even in the case of the descent of the Holy Spirit, pneuma still retains the meaning of wind and spirit. This fact, undoubtedly, points to Maria, who, being virgin in essence, conceived from pneuma, like a vulture.
Further, according to Horapollon, the neck also symbolizes Athena (born without births directly from the head of Zeus), who was a virgin and knew only spiritual motherhood. All this really is Maria's allusion and the motivation for rebirth. And it's not at all obvious that Leonardo wanted to say something different with his picture. Even if it is true that he identified himself with the infant as a Christ, he most likely reproduced the mythological motif of the dual mother, but in no way his own personal prehistory.
From this analysis it follows that there are as many archetypes as there are typical life situations. The endless repetition has minted this experience on our psychic constitution - not in the form of images filled with content, but primarily forms without content, representing only the possibility of a certain type of perception. The symbol thus expresses an unquestionable spiritual experience.
The archetypes of the collective unconscious can not be seen, can not be tracked in either the unconscious or the conscious state, but they are present and determine the whole consciousness, acting on it in the form of symbols. These symbols are a manifestation of a certain order in the formation of personality and have a visual form. In order to understand the structure of these symbols, Jung has been engaged in ethnography for some time, studying primitive tribes, to see how the archetypes manifest themselves in peoples whose individuation (ie, the formation of personality) is not yet as clearly expressed as in the modern man: in the primitive man, the unconscious and the conscious are not yet so strongly opposed to each other. According to Jung, the development of mankind is mainly in the degree of individuation.
Thus, CG Jung played an important role in the development of psychoanalysis. Considering the confrontation between Freud and Adler on the causes of neurosis, Jung formulated the main principle of characterology. If there is a possible difference in the genesis of neurosis, it is reasonable to assume that neurotics vary in temperament. The same difference in temperaments affects those who study neuroses. It has long been noted that people are not similar to each other, not only in appearance, but also in behavior, inner peace. There was a natural desire to somehow distinguish the most characteristic types. But what should we take as the basis for such a typology?
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