Teaching as a quasi-research activity
"To learn to think, we must think" - this ancient wisdom is most precisely suited to the definition of developmental learning. It is only necessary to make one clarification: in the educational activity, according to V. V. Davydov, the child thinks in action. The ideal student in developing education is not a large loophole, but a healthy active person, ready to verify the truth of any statement in practical action with specific things. As an example, let us consider a typical problem from the course of mathematics of the l-th class in the so-called pre-numeral learning period. During this period, the children do not yet know the numbers as such. They study actions with magnitudes using their sign-symbolic (literal) notation. From this, in fact, the algebraic approach to reality, then children have a more general understanding of the number than is possible with traditional teaching, when the basis for learning mathematics is taken account of.
The teacher gives the children the task: "What is bigger in width: the window or the door?". This is difficult to determine by eye. In previous lessons, children solved similar problems, but only things could be compared in value, attaching them to each other. Now this can not be done. Some hotheads suggest removing the doors from the hinges and attaching them to the window. But after a short discussion, a sensible majority of the class rejects this adventuristic project. It turns out that it is practically impossible to solve the problem directly. Children come to the conclusion that we need to look for some other way to solve the problem, and start thinking. Suddenly, someone remembers that when comparing two objects in size, you can use a third equal to one of them. This proposal causes a storm of ecstasy. At once there is a convenient object - a rope. But before it is put into practice, the teacher suggests to children to think how it will be used and write down their actions in mathematical signs.
Children work as follows. Let A be the width of the door, B - the width of the window. Cut out just enough rope to make its length equal to the width of the door. Denote the length of the rope by the letter E. Let's write this action: A = E. Compare the length of the rope (E) and the width of the window (B). There are three options. First, if B = E, means and B = A. Second: If B is greater than E, then B is greater than A. Third: if B < strong then B less than A. Children have already mastered these logical actions in previous lessons, comparing subjects to size. In the correctness of these actions, they could be seen directly in practice. Now, without starting practical actions, they actually solved the problem in a general way (in this case, using an algebraic approach), i.e. in theory. It remains only to check which of the three options really corresponds to this particular case. Children do it with pleasure. Afterwards, the method for solving the problem is discussed. Children come to the conclusion that this type of task can always be solved without resorting to a direct comparison of objects, but using a third value and acting with symbolic symbols.
Such tasks in the theory of learning activities are called educational. Learning is a task that forces a student to search (analyze, apply) a common way of solving all problems of a given type. In the process of solving such problems, the student generalizes the essential features of objects, as well as his actions and actions of other children with these objects. Thus, he learns to think. The activity of students in this case is called "quasi-research" because it reproduces the basic elements of the scientific discussion, that is, the way scientists articulate and discuss the results of their research.
Educational activity, according to Davydov, is a solution to the system of teaching tasks. The sequence of these tasks in each academic subject is built from the point of view of a developed view of the essence of these objects. What are the main courses of developing education for primary schools now? The "Mathematics", created by Davydov and his co-authors SF Gorbov, GG Mikulina, OV Savelieva, is a view of arithmetic from the point of view of higher mathematics. A similar approach was realized in mathematics courses by AM Zakharova and TI Feshchenko, EI Aleksandrova. "Native United States", developed by V. V. Repkin and his team, is teaching spelling on the basis of the achievements of modern linguistics of the United States language. Visual Arts & Artwork Yu. A. Poluyanova is an organization of children's fine arts under the laws of professional art. Literary Reading G. N. Kudina and N. N. Novlyanskaya reproduce high samples of cultural reading of artistic texts and the general logic of literary creativity. Surrounding World EV Chudinova and E. N. Bukvareva is an attempt to introduce elements of scientific observation and experiment into the process of familiarizing children with the world around them. In Music LV Vinogradova reproduced the basic principles and traditions of collective music making. In general, the learning process is put seriously and in full accordance with the age opportunities of children.
Sometimes people ask: is it interesting for children? The answer is one: with the proper organization of training - it is interesting. They feel that they are engaged in a serious, important business. Why? Answering this question, we need to digress a little from the classical presentation of the theory. Recently, it has become habitual to associate interest in learning with her amusement. This explains the fashion for gaming methods of conducting lessons, the colorful design of modern textbooks without any connection with the content of the educational material, and sometimes even to the detriment of it. The interest of students in the content of the educational material in developing education lies in a different plane. In this content, he reveals the essence of the world, which people are always interested in. It is not accidental that certain properties of things and phenomena were specifically identified and studied by people for centuries and millennia. Now, in the corresponding formulas, signs, artistic images, the perfection of the surrounding world is fixed, as a person can see it. We can say that in this the essence of man himself is revealed. Apparently, the child feels it. Often it is necessary to observe at lessons how children indifferently look at various tricks of the teacher, aimed at increase of entertainments. But as soon as serious work began with such seemingly uncomfortable things as algebraic expressions written down with chalk on a blackboard, the children were transformed. It was clearly visible from their spiritualized faces. Sometimes there was a frightening silence of some teachers. But it was not the silence, which is achieved with a stick discipline. Just ended, even if entertaining, but a children's fairy tale, and a serious life began. Here the children were seized with a different interest, rather than just entertaining. I think this is due to the premonition of the discovery of the essence of the surrounding world and the relationship of a person to it. Could this be uninteresting? Unfortunately, this aspect of educational activity has not yet been investigated. He is present in the training activity in a secret order, but this does not diminish his value.
It is not necessary to think that such an seemingly super-high flight in training becomes something out of the ordinary for a child's life. In ordinary life, children from time to time grasp the essence of phenomena, but only by accident. In traditional education, this occurs often in spite of training. In developing education, an attempt is made to make these discoveries (flights) regular events in the school life of children through a thoughtful sequence of educational tasks. Consider this in yet another example of the lesson in mathematics in the 1st grade.
Teacher offers children to determine what is greater in height: a door or a cabinet standing in the opposite corner from the door. It can not be determined by eye again. The children are already experienced, so they immediately ask for a rope. But here is the problem: the teacher has only a small short piece. What to do? Children again are forced to think. Someone suggests using this fragment as a third value several times, i.e. as a measure. All agree. The teacher suggests first recording the necessary actions in signs. The following picture is obtained.
Let A have the height of the door, B - the height of the cabinet. Denote the length of the rope by the letter E. Determine how many times the length of the rope will fit into the height of the door. This number of measures was designated by the letter a. Recorded this measurement action as A/E. Then A/E = a. Determine how many times the length of the rope will fit into the height of the cabinet. This number of measures was denoted by the letter b. Recorded this measurement action as B/E Then B/E = b. There are three options. First : if and = b, means A = B. Second: if and greater than b, then And more B. Third: if and less b, then A is less than B. It remains only to perform specific actions. But the children do not know the numbers yet. How to be? They can mark each dimension with a dash "/ & quot ;. Then the result of the measurement can be written in the form of a sequence of these dashes in the same way as ancient people did when they did not know the numbers yet.
a : /////////////
b - //////////
It turned out that and more b. Means the door above the cabinet. The problem is solved! Teacher offers children a b b to call numbers. Everyone agrees, why not call it that. Then the teacher asks the question: "If I had no rope, could we solve this task?" Here the whole class is excited. Offer to use a pen, pencil case, etc. Use the pen.
It turned out that the number of dashes is different, but still and more b.
Here one of the students makes a discovery: "Maria Ivanovna! It turns out that any two subjects can be compared with the help of any third measure. The numbers a and b will be different, and the result of the comparison will always be one. The class freezes from this discovery. Then a storm of delight. Some students propose to check this. So, in a series of searches, discussions and discoveries in children, an understanding of the number is formed as a ratio of the size of the object to the magnitude of the measure. From this understanding, integers, and fractional, and percentages, and unknown algebraic equations are logical. Such children in the future will be difficult to spend on the financial pyramid, because they understand the essence of the number, because they have the ability of theoretical thinking.
Of course, each training course has its own logic for setting educational tasks, depending on the specific subject content. Here, interested readers will have to turn to the methodological manuals and textbooks of the authors of specific programs. That is, we need to become more familiar with the technologies of developmental learning.
A wide field of creativity opens before practical teachers. The fact is that the teacher of developmental learning has to constantly maintain the unity of content, method and development in specific lesson situations. This means that he must creatively comprehend the learning situations in which his students make discoveries . You can say that in these moments he also makes his discoveries.
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