Teaching schoolchildren to conduct simple experimental...

Teaching students to conduct simple experimental studies

The experiment is one of the basic methods of natural science. It has a more complex structure than the experience and fully corresponds to the notion of study study: the formulation of the problem - the hypothesis hypothesis - the search for a way to test the hypothesis (as a rule, it is experience, but observations can also be involved) - hypothesis testing actions - hypotheses is confirmed or refuted).

Until recently, the experiment took place mainly when working with plants on a school farm site or in a classy corner of nature. True, and there he was often referred to as experience. A special position in this sense is taken by the natural sciences according to DB El'konin-VV Davydov. There, experimenting is taught specifically, beginning with the second class. We cite the development of an introductory lesson, which clearly demonstrates the essence of this way of knowing the world around us. In order to simplify the perception of the essence of experimentation, the elements of sign-symbolic modeling that accompany learning are excluded from the development text.

Lesson theme: Why are cones closed ?

Aims of the teacher: a) set the educational task for the discovery of experimentation as a new way of obtaining answers to questions; b) organize reflection (awareness, comprehension) of this method.

Hardware: two roughly the same pine cones.

Child benefits: textbooks, exercise books.

Teacher : I see the majority believe that I have already learned to observe, ask, find answers in the directory. Let's see if this is so. Now I will describe the complex task with which I recently encountered, and you tell me how it is better to solve it.

Next, the teacher tells the children about "his observations made in the forest".

Teacher : Recently I happened to walk in the woods and see the bumps lying on the path. All the cones were open, like hedgehogs. The next day the same cones were closed, the scales pressed against each other. Because of what could this happen?

Why are the cones closed?

Fig. 12.1. Why are cones closed?

Children (offer their explanations, explanations based on the fact that these are other cones): Those are old, but they are young.

Teacher : The cones are the same (I marked them with ribbons), they just closed. Why?

As a result of this work, a number of childish assumptions appear on the board. These are the assumptions associated with the weather: "because of the rain", "because of the heat", "it was evening and morning", " (sunlight), etc.

The teacher shows the children that there are many assumptions, but which of them is true is incomprehensible.

Teacher : How will we receive the response?

Children offer different known ways. Teacher offers all of them to try. Ask parents (the same opinions are obtained from the survey), search in the directory (the answer is not).

This work is better spent at school, having a limited set of books in the lesson, since literature has already appeared in which this phenomenon is described and explained. Sometimes it is appropriate to interrupt the lesson after searching for answers in the literature, so that children can then interview parents.

On the offer to observe (in the next lesson) the teacher says that he carefully observed the weather on those two days: on the first day the weather was "dry, hot, sunny, windy," and on the second day - "wet, cold , overcast, windless & quot ;. Conditions teacher assigns so that they all change at the same time, but that the wet cones correspond to the closed cones.

When discussing these conditions, the children conclude that it is impossible to decide from observations what exactly caused the cones to close.

Teacher proposes to determine, what is the reason that even observation does not allow to find the exact answer.

The children analyze the difficulties and come to the conclusion that in nature "all conditions are mixed, present simultaneously", so it is impossible to decide what exactly affects.

Teacher : What does it take to overcome this difficulty?

Children : Make the conditions separately.

Then the question is solved: "How do I make each condition separately?" Teacher proposes to use two cones lying on his desk for this purpose.

Children are offered, for example, to check whether sunlight is affecting, put bumps on a lit place.

Teacher : What will we see?

Children : They will open (close).

Teacher : Can we make a conclusion from this?

Children : Yes. If they open (close), then everything is correct.

Teacher : And maybe they would open up as well?

Children : Ah! You need to put one lump on the light and the other into the darkness.

Similarly, other suggestions of children (about humidity, wind, etc.) are dealt with.

Teacher : Let's think, what kind of a way have we discovered to solve scientific disputes? What does it look like, and how does it differ from the old ways: for example, from observation? What have we done with the cones?

Children : We put one in the refrigerator and the other in the heat. We create and change the conditions of the process ourselves!

Teacher finds out why it is important that there is not one but two lumps. The children are trying to explain, and the teacher sums it up by calling one cone "experimental" and the other "control."

Teacher : And will we observe, and if so, when?

Children : We will observe after putting the bumps in different conditions.

Why are the cones closed?

Fig. 12.2. Why are cones closed?

Teacher says that after we decided to test our different opinions, they became not just opinions, but hypotheses, or assumptions. And the stages of creating conditions and observing the result is a way of testing hypotheses. The diagram of the experiment looks like this:

Then, after the children understood the main idea of ​​the experiment, the content of the concepts "experimental" and control objects, children are offered other themes for experimentation, mainly related to plants.

thematic pictures

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