The need to form a team can arise in different situations of the development of the organization. Rapid changes in both politics and business put a number of tasks related to team building. Most often there is a request for the formation of operational teams to work in conditions of limited time; consolidation of top managers with the aim of more efficient exchange of information, enhancing creativity and uniting efforts to achieve the objectives of the enterprise as a whole; rallying of employees within the division (department) in order to improve the efficiency of subordinate management and increase the efficiency of the unit; rallying middle managers to accelerate the passage of information, improve the psychological climate.
In the literature one can often find the point of view according to which the formation of a team is one of the levels of organizational counseling. At the same time, there are three levels of process for the formation of commands:
1) individual counseling, i.e. management of difficult problems arising as a result of existence in the organization;
2) the immediate formation of the team - active team inclusion in the planning of organizational changes;
3) building inter-team relationships (in the case of having several separate teams in the organization, consulting is aimed both at the process of forming teams, and on establishing the relationship between them).
When considering the problem of team building or teambuilding, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of "development of the team" and teambuilding & quot ;.
Team development - is a natural process, usually occurring without the intended, planned and systematic intervention of the researcher, and often lasting for years.
Team building, or team building (from English team building - building a team) is a term commonly used in the context of business and, applied to a wide range of activities, to create and improve the effectiveness of the team. The idea of command methods of work was borrowed from the world of sports and began to be actively introduced into management practice in the 1960-1970s. At the moment, team building is one of the promising models of corporate management that ensure the full development of the company, and is one of the most effective tools for personnel management. Team building is an important factor that ensures the best quality of services and at the same time preserves healthy competition. The companies' surveys on the reasons for the introduction of the command organization of labor show that it contributes to improving the quality and productivity of labor, reducing operational costs, contributing to job satisfaction, improving decision-making and communication within the organization, maximizing the mental capacity, creativity and responsibility of each employee .
In psychology, teambuilding is the process of purposeful formation of a special way of interaction of people in an organized group that allows them to effectively realize their energy, intellectual and creative potential in accordance with the strategic goals of the organization.
The following are the components of the teambuilding process:
1. Formation and development of teamwork skills (team skills), which are the basis of the system for implementing command management. This includes the following skills:
- harmonization of the common goal with personal goals;
- taking responsibility for the result of the team;
- situational leadership (leadership under the task) and flexible style change in accordance with the peculiarities of the problem;
- constructive interaction and self-management;
- the adoption of a single command decision and its coordination with team members.
2. Formation of team spirit (team spirit), ie. a set of psychological phenomena that characterize the informal relations of employees to colleagues and organizations. The development of team spirit, but essence, is a set of measures aimed at:
- a stronger sense of cohesion, the formation of a sustainable sense We & quot ;;
- development of trust between employees, understanding and acceptance of each other's individual characteristics;
- creation of motivation for joint activities
- creating the experience of highly effective joint actions;
- increasing the informal authority of managers;
- development of loyalty of participants in the program in relation to the organization.
3. Team building ( teambuilding ) - mechanical actions, selection, optimization of team structure and functional-role distribution:
- effective use of team strengths;
- distribution of roles in the team for optimal achievement of results;
- the formation of a new structure in the merger, acquisition, restructuring of the enterprise;
- creating a working environment for the formation of project teams;
- the establishment of horizontal links within the team, regional units.
In the field of personnel management, the term command formation understand the short (from two hours to three days) event to improve teamwork: corporate programs, rope courses, corporate holidays. Indirectly, under the category of activities that lead to the effect of teambuilding, are also the celebration of the employees' birthday, the company's birthday, the New Year. One of the effects of such events is the overall cohesion of the team, which is part of the team spirit.
Usually teambuilding is conducted after organizational diagnosis, evaluation or evaluation of personnel in the organization and is a kind of stage in the advisory services for organizational development. In this case, teambuilding can take place in three directions:
1) the formation of high-performance teams on the basis of attestation or personnel assessment;
2) the selection of appropriate personnel and the acquisition of existing teams according to information obtained during organizational diagnostics, attestation or evaluation of personnel, taking into account knowledge, skills, abilities and ability to work in a team;
3) reorganization and reorganization of existing teams on the basis of data of organizational diagnostics, attestation or evaluation of personnel in order to achieve maximum efficiency.
According to domestic psychologists, practitioners, we can identify several of the most sought-after areas in the field of teambuilding:
- the acquisition of teams, the selection of individual "executors" taking into account the team-wide context;
- the formation of team spirit (the task of commanding the rehearsal), the improvement of mutual understanding;
- evaluation (diagnosis) of target groups from the point of view of their correspondence to the concept of "command & quot ;;
- practical tasks for the selection and training of team leaders and the creation of an organizational environment that meets the principles of the team way of working.
When forming a team, it is necessary to determine the purpose (mission of the team), formulate its goals, set tasks, define roles in the team and develop group norms.
In foreign social psychology, the following approaches to team building are distinguished:
- an approach based on the development and alignment of team goals (teambuilding is defined as the development of the ability of a group of people to achieve their goals);
is an interpersonal approach or an approach focused on analyzing processes and improving interpersonal relationships (the process of team building is aimed at increasing interpersonal relationships in a group and is based on the assumption that the team will be able to function more efficiently in this way);
- role-based approach (teambuilding is improving the team's work by increasing the clarity of roles, as a result of which each member of the team knows what his role is and what are the roles of others, what expectations he has for others and others for him);
- an approach to teambuilding based on problem solving (the team becomes more effective as a result of joint problem solving by all team members, that is, in the process of team building, team members determine the main problems, deal with them and actively plan their activities).
The technology of forming a team includes the sequential passage of three stages, each of which must answer a number of questions (Table 6.5).
Stages of team formation
Stages of team formation
What kind of work should I do?
What powers does the group have to manage its own work?
What is the central point of the work that the group will perform?
What is the degree of interdependence of team members?
Is there only one correct solution or are there several options?
Are the interests of the team members equal or competitive?
How many people should be on the team?
Who is perfect for the job? What level of technical skills, task management skills and interpersonal skills are required?
What level and type of differentiation is optimal for the team?
How do team members adjust to each other?
What is the implicit distribution of roles between team members?
Which norms are favorable or dangerous for the group?
Does team cohesion matter? How does trust grow, what does it threaten, and how is it established among team members?
In the process of recruiting a team, it is necessary to know the principles and conditions for its formation. According to R. Belbin, usually the teams are formed from managers who perform certain duties in their divisions, and the team members become due to the functions they perform. However, the psychological compatibility of its members is crucial for the effective functioning of the team being created.
In the studies and experiments of RM Belbina and his colleagues in creating teams in business practice, five interrelated principles were formulated.
1. Members of the management team contribute to the achievement of the team's goals in two ways. First, they can well perform a personal command role, using their professional and technical knowledge. Secondly, each member of the team has a potentially valuable command role, which he to some extent fulfills. The command role describes a behavior model that ensures the productive interaction of team members with each other in the process of advancing the team to the goals set before it.
2. Each team needs an optimal balance in the performance of functional and team roles by all team members. The ideal combination of roles is determined by the goals and tasks facing the team.
3. The effectiveness of the team will increase to the extent that the members of the team correctly determine their strengths and weaknesses and, in the interests of the team, will adjust to the use of strengths and to neutralize the weaknesses both in the performance of functional and in the performance of team roles.
4. The personal qualities of team members, which focus them on specific command roles, simultaneously limit the person in self-fulfillment in other roles.
5. The team can use its technical resources in the most advantageous way only when the team has a set of team roles necessary for effective teamwork.
Not always and not from any employees can form a cohesive team. For this, the following conditions are necessary:
- people performing work should be specialists, act as experts in solving the tasks assigned to them;
- the combined experience and talents of people working in a team must exceed the experience and abilities of any of those who work alone;
- most people should have the opportunity to some extent influence the adoption of those decisions that they have to fulfill, this increases their interest in the common cause;
- Everyone should have a propensity for creativity, which can be systematically used, attracting him to participate in the work of the group.
At the heart of teambuilding technology is a set of principles that set certain rules and requirements for the organization of teams. The following principles of the team work are distinguished.
1. Voluntariness of entering the team is the key principle of team building. Only the candidate who voluntarily volunteered to join the team on the basis of awareness of the understanding of all the conditions of her activity can be included in the team.
2. Collective performance of work. Each member of the team performs that part of the work that the team instructed him, rather than the one that he usually performed on the instructions of the administrative authorities (the latter is not excluded within the team).
3. Collective responsibility. The whole team loses in trust, encouragement, in public recognition, if the task is not performed through the fault of any of the team members.
4. Orientation of payment for the final result of team work.
All members of the team, regardless of positions occupied, "acquire" if the team as a whole has worked effectively, and "lose" if the team has not achieved the result.
5. Worthy importance of stimulating the team for the final result.
The management should have information about the incentives important to the candidates team members. Based on this information, a "stimulation fund" is drawn up. Not only money, but also other means of promotion, based on hobbies, ambitions and preferences of candidates (for example, public recognition) can serve as worthy incentives.
6. Autonomous self-management team. The activities of team members are managed by its leader (leader), and not by the administrative authorities of the organization.
7. Increased performance discipline. Each member of the team is responsible for the team result. This principle is voluntarily accepted by every member of the team.
Creating a team involves the passage of a number of stages. When describing the technology of team building, T. Zinkevich-Evstigneeva singles out "10 steps of creating the command".
1. Understanding of the manager's own perceived and unconscious goals of team work.
2. Selection and selection of candidates for team members.
3. The work of team members over their own perceived and unconscious goals.
4. Research interpersonal preferences.
5. Purposeful formation of unity energy.
6. Formation of team values.
7. Teaching the team the technology of work.
8. Creating a team image.
9. Strengthening the team spirit.
10. Maintenance of the team.
The most detailed stages and processes of command formation are described in the normative model of teambuilding IO. M. Zhukov, A. V. Zhuravlev and E. II. Pavlova. The authors distinguish the following stages of teambuilding.
1. Picking/re-equipment. Teambuilding begins with determining the number and composition of participants (future members) of the team. Preference is given to heterogeneous composition (age, sex, professional, role or typological) commands, in comparison with homogeneous, because in the long term heterogeneous teams show themselves more stable and give greater satisfaction to their members. To collect information about potential members of the team, intellectual abilities, cognitive styles, personal traits, value orientations of candidates are examined.
In practice, this stage may be absent if the consultant or the teambuilding coach works with the already completed team.
2. Acquaintance/deepening of acquaintance. Here the primary contact is established, the necessary level of trust among the participants. There is an acquaintance and orientation of team members in each other and in a situation. In the arsenal of a trainer or consultant there is a very large number of collections for various trainings, which describe the procedures for initial acquaintance and its deepening. If team members know each other well, you can resort to refresh procedures ideas about each other.
3. Institutionalization. The team must be inscribed in the structure and organization of the organization. It should have rights and responsibilities, access to information and other resources. There should be established and, if necessary, documented the procedure of work, ways of interaction, defined the circle of persons who supervise the group and coordinate their work with other teams, as well as structural divisions and services of the organization. This stage is especially important if the team is formed to carry out organizational changes. Work on command documents, such as the Command Statement and "Command Regulations", has as its goal not only their direct creation. In the course of this activity, it becomes clear who is who in the group, what talents are the members of the group, what difficulties are encountered in the collision of the characters and how the search is proceeding but overcoming them.
4. Forming a common vision. The main goal of the stage is the coordination of views, positions, and the image of the desired future among the participants in teambuilding. A common (shared) vision is the same and precise understanding of each other's aspirations, what each member of the team really wants to achieve in the future and how he or she is guided in choosing one or the other way. The group defines the goals, objectives, directions of movement and the specifics of the activities of its team (organization).
5. Positioning/repositioning By positioning is understood the definition of a person's place in the system of business and personal relations (subordination, accountability, responsibility, distance) in the organizational context. As a result, the participants:
1) determine the subject-functional positions (professional, industry) in the activities of their team and the correspondence of its members to these positions (here we take into account inclinations, abilities, level of professional knowledge, skills and experience, type of personality, etc.)
2) designate and distribute team roles (according to the typological or role approach), ensuring the complementarity and compatibility of team members.
6. Planning the first step. At this stage, the goal-setting system of the team is formed, a specific schedule is drawn up, resources and responsibilities are allocated.
7. Execution. At this stage, what was planned and planned earlier is carried out.
8. Reflection. The team constantly monitors how effectively it has moved forward. Participants evaluate the performance of specific tasks, analyze what hinders and what contributes to the team's productive work.
9. Planning for the second step. The team plans a second step considering the analysis of the new state of affairs.
This normative model functions as a means of orienting actions aimed at making the team work with team features. The model describes the stages of command formation in connection with which processes are leading at each stage.
The next question, on which it is worthwhile to dwell in more detail, is how the teams are assembled.
When selecting candidates, first of all it is necessary to determine which of their characteristics are priority in each specific case, and which ones are secondary. Firstly, the team should initially not be formed from specialists "on the part of", but from the staff of the organization's employees who know the specifics of the work, and they are well-known to the team. Secondly, depending on the specific conditions and requirements, priority may be given to either a high level of professional qualifications or personal characteristics of candidates.
When recruiting project teams, it is necessary to remember that the project is a temporary enterprise (effort) that is carried out to create a unique (innovative) product or service, often in conditions of time constraints. The members of the project team must, in a short time, unite, reach mutual understanding, effectively solve the task, without going beyond the resource constraints. To form a project team:
- to comply with the functional requirements associated with the qualifications and experience of specialists (take into account knowledge, skills);
- take into account the group dynamic processes (communication, group pressure, psychological compatibility, cohesion, conflicts, peculiarities of group decision making etc.);
- find out which project groups will be more effective: composed of similar or different (complementing) people.
Modern studies prove the practical importance of the principle of maximum heterogeneity, according to which heterogeneous teams show greater productivity and creativity than homogeneous ones, since complementary people can cover a wider range of tasks. Spontaneous selection in the team, as a rule, promotes the bias towards the homogeneity pole, as people tend to work with those who like them, they are similar to them, close to them, but the interaction will be more productive if such people manage to agree with those who are from them differs who supplements them. In addition, in homogeneous groups over time, people tend to develop missing characteristics, but at the same time they have to change personal attitudes and tendencies, move away from their psychotype, favorite team roles, unlike a heterogeneous group where an individual can "be himself" and to benefit from it. Thus, it is necessary to determine the inclinations of the participants and build a team in which the complementarity of all the members of each other group will give the maximum final effectiveness.
For the configuration of project teams traditionally proceed from psychotypes and use a typological approach.
The most popular model in the typological approach is the DW Keirsey model, based on the ideas of CG Jung and the Myers-Briggs concept. The core of this model is four psychotypes: NТ -strateg, NF -diplomat, SJ -logistics, SP -actical. Each of these psychotypes (intellectual roles) has strengths and weaknesses, peculiarities of relationships with colleagues and contributes to the team. So, NТ -the strategy brings thoughtful conceptual bases to team decisions, develops useful alternatives to planned actions, tends to support partners' ideas. It works best in situations that require intellectual effort and allow you to freely express your ideas. Style management - visionary, the development of strategies and concepts. NF -diplomat brings to the team a personality-oriented, focused on the needs of the staff's view on the state of affairs. It is indispensable in predicting the social consequences of organizational and technological changes. He is a good conductor within the organization of plans and new ideas, because he is able to convince, is able to infect his colleagues with enthusiasm. The style of management is the regulation of power relations, the conviction of harmonization. SJ -Logist is focused on supporting an effective, working without failures of the system, contributes to the creation of a full information field for team members. Its main feature is a sense of responsibility. If the team lacks SJ, , then significant details may be missed, implementation of plans may be delayed, and correct decisions will not be implemented properly. The style of management is an orientation toward consolidation and stability, maintaining subordination and order. Finally, the SP tactic is effective in verbal discussion of specific plans and in developing solutions to current problems. Effective in crisis situations, but should be removed from the situation as soon as it goes back to normal. They prefer independence, spontaneity, freedom. Management style - conflict resolution, management of the dynamics of the situation.
Based on this model, you can describe the contribution of each of the four basic psychotypes to the team work, predict the strengths and weaknesses of the existing project team, potential conflicts and contradictions in it. If possible, it is necessary to ensure participation in the project team of employees with different psychotypes (according to the principle of heterogeneity).
When forming management teams, role-based approaches are used (for example, the RM Belbina or T. Yu. Bazarov models), which are based on the requirements of management activity, in which the stages, types of tasks and individual management functions are singled out.
The key concept within these approaches is the concept of role. A command role is a model of behavior that ensures the productive interaction of team members with each other in the process of advancing the team to the goals set before it. Each member of the team that performs a certain command role, sets its goals, tasks and functions. The team, carrying out joint activities, expects from it the implementation of their duties. Successful performance of the role assumes that the person is aware of these expectations and has the willingness and ability (competence) to fulfill them. The group (command) role is revealed through a basic dichotomy: representations of the business process and the attitudes and competencies associated with building human relationships.
If you need to complete a management (self-managed) team, you should:
1) reconstruct the management process, define critical points for it, describe the functions necessary for its full implementation,
2) determine which of these tasks requires abilities (competences);
3) find people who can (are capable, competent) and want to solve problems of each type.
When describing the requirements for candidates in the formation of management teams, it is possible to distinguish three key groups of skills that potential candidates in management teams must possess (or seek to assimilate)
1. Skills of systemic thinking and possession of situational analysis. These skills are necessary for analysis, planning their activities in conditions of limited certainty and constant changes in external factors. It is advisable to pay attention to such abilities of candidates as:
- the ability to extract from various sources useful information on comparative data, technologies, methods, market conditions, potential competitors, etc.
- the ability to systematically analyze available information in order to form certain forecasts, strategies for action, develop new areas of activity;
- the ability to assess the risks of possible actions, objectively analyze everything for and against various scenarios.
2. Communicative skills. The candidates' abilities are usually assessed:
- create an atmosphere of trust, appreciate the ideas put forward by others, involve the team in an active work, not closing all tasks on themselves;
- to form motivational incentives for employees, providing them with resources, feedback, training and training, necessary for their personal and professional growth;
- clearly and convincingly argue their proposals and suggestions of others, aimed at a rational way to achieve the final result.
3. Leadership abilities of candidates. The following qualities are revealed:
- confidence, the ability to clearly identify the most rational option and infect others with confidence in the success of the chosen path;
- the ability to establish partnerships even with those services and colleagues with whom conflict has traditionally developed;
- focus on action and result, the ability to take responsibility for achieving the set goals, overcoming external difficulties and bureaucratic barriers.
In the practice of teambuilding, it is often necessary to train command leaders, for example, in the preparation of a management reserve or the urgent preparation of future leaders of new organizations and subunits, political parties. The solution to this problem is related to the allocation of competencies necessary for the effective performance of leadership functions in the team. The minimum program should involve working with a set of leadership competencies, including:
- management of attention and meanings - the use of communicative techniques that contribute to the perception, understanding and acceptance by the audience of those messages, statements and comments that the leader makes;
- management of group processes - participation in organization of group discussions of problems and in making joint decisions, ability to organize and conduct business meetings, structuring the group process (role of supervisor, moderator, facilitator, idea generator)
- diagnostic competence - knowledge, skills and attitudes that help determine the main propensities and predispositions of people according to their external behavioral manifestations in order to understand and predict their behavior and use them effectively for the benefit of the team;
- feedback management - the possession of evaluation techniques (praise, censure) and non-valuable (feedback on performance) feedback for the purpose of influencing team members and forming interpersonal relationships between leader and followers.
If the task is to form a team of changes that works with organizational changes, then it must be taken into account that it must satisfy two conditions - organizational and personnel. In such a team, all the core units of an enterprise must be represented, the minimum impact on which leads to maximum results. The change team must consist of an active minority, i.e. members of the group who have less opportunity to influence the group as a whole, but due to their style of behavior (coherence, reasoning, consistency and perseverance in advancing their views) that can change the opinion of the majority. In addition, a member of the change team should not only have the necessary capabilities, but also be at the intersection of many channels of formal and informal communication in order to be able to exert a transformative influence. The psychological and professional characteristics of reformers can be diagnosed through a comprehensive analysis of their professional path, the facts of professional socialization (analysis of formal curriculum vitae questionnaires, biographical interviews, evaluation centers, development centers). The tasks associated with the development of innovations and their introduction into the organizational structure, presuppose the modification of business processes, the redistribution of tasks and functions, the changing norms and rules of interaction. Participants of the change team act as translators and conductors of changes, direct desires, motives, knowledge and skills of employees to solve new problems, react to resistance to change, stimulate training and development of personnel. Therefore, this type of work is permeated with the tasks of management.
The team's rehearsal is the result of the consistent conduct of specially organized procedures for working with the team, involving participants in the stages of team building and developing the communication skills required in teamwork.
Actions but the formation of team spirit, are aimed at the solution of the following tasks:
- increase of staff loyalty to the organization;
- the creation of informal content and useful for the company relations between employees
- strengthening the informal authority of managers;
- creating the experience of highly effective joint actions;
- increased motivation to work together;
- a deeper understanding of each other's individual characteristics, increasing the degree of acceptance of each other, developing trust between employees
- creating a vivid collaborative story that reinforces the awareness and acceptance of the company's philosophy.
The development of the team unfolds in two planes: instrumental and socio-emotional. Orientation to one or another side of the life of the team determines the technology of work on the formation of team spirit (command rehearsal). Classification of approaches to command replay may look like this.
1. Trainings of skills (skills) are instrumental, educational (high orientation to the instrumental side of relationships and low - to socio-emotional relations). They learn the skills of teamwork.
2. Group-dynamic training is focused on the development of emotional relationships in the group. Within the framework of such trainings, the life of the group in extreme conditions ("rope course") is imitated.
3. Training in mastery of behavior (business games, complex training of command rehearsal, seminars on the formation of a common vision) are oriented both to social and instrumental relationships.
4. Team coaching, or teambuilding in real time, is a complex effort to position participants, develop a common vision and optimize relationships that are conducted in existing organizations.
5. The natural development of the team.
The methods of developing team spirit include carrying out problem meetings, round tables and conferences, publishing a corporate newspaper, joint active recreation and much more. It is necessary to emphasize that such events only develop and strengthen the team spirit, but do not form it. If there is no team interaction, a sense of belonging of employees to a single whole, then corporate holidays and rest will not be able to build it.
Creating an effective team for solving specific tasks is an excellent opportunity to increase the competitiveness of an organization and a way to survive on the market. Creation of a special team allows to remove the deficit of specialists in a particular field, can fill a gap in the functional structure of the organization, resolve the crisis situation and cope with a complex creative task, optimize the management system of the organization thanks to the team's rehearsal.
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