Tests of temperament and characterTemperament in psychology, as is known, is called the aggregate of dynamic features of cognitive processes and human behavior, and character - a system of stable personal properties that determine the actions of a person. In most cases, the treatment of clients in psychological counseling in connection with the problems of personal or interpersonal properties somehow affects the character of a person and his temperament. Therefore, it is important for the counselor psychologist to know and to have practically the totality of the methods by which the temperament and character of a person are evaluated.
In the process of psychodiagnostics of temperament, the following methods may prove useful to the counselor psychologist. First of all, this is the technique of VM Rusalov. It is the most modern and allows us to assess practically a number of properties of temperament, manifested in a person in work and in communication with people. These are temperamental properties such as vigor, plasticity, tempo and emotionality.
Note also that there are many psychodiagnostic techniques designed to evaluate the various features of a person's personality. Among them there are complex psychological tests designed to study a person's personality, described through a system of concepts that characterize people from different angles, and in most cases these concepts represent separate traits.
There are also a lot of psychological techniques designed for differentiated diagnosis of human traits. Below, we refer to some of the methods relating to these and to another group.
Among the various traits of nature, about the correction of which clients can apply to psychological counseling, there are such as anxiety. In this case, first of all, it is recommended to accurately assess the actual level of anxiety in the client, and it is advisable to do so already at the first appeal to a psychological consultation. Further it is expedient to find out the degree of anxiety of the client, having done this already after the client has fully complied with the recommendations received from the counselor psychologist.
This will allow the client to make sure that the recommendations he received are really useful. Awareness of this fact will not only consolidate the positive result of counseling, but will further reduce the level of anxiety in the client. For a counselor psychologist, this will be additional evidence that his recommendations were not in vain, and will give him the opportunity to improve his own practice of counseling.
If it is a question of the degree of anxiety of preschool-age children, then it can be practically encroached using the method of "Choose the right person". This technique is a children's test of anxiety R. Temple, M. Dorky and W. Amen.
It is applicable to children of primary school age, but in this case, you can use another test designed for adults (Spielberger-Khanin test) if children of this age already understand, correctly perceive and correctly react to the judgments of the corresponding test.
The last of these tests is also good because it allows, first, to assess the anxiety of a person as a sufficiently developed personal quality, and secondly, it makes it possible to separate the so-called personal anxiety from situational anxiety.
Such a practical separation of different types of anxiety is important for the following reasons. Situational anxiety is less stable and, therefore, a more variable character trait of a person, while personal anxiety, on the contrary, is quite stable and little changeable. In addition, the recommendations offered to the client should primarily concern the impact on situational anxiety, and refer to social situations that the client could easily handle on their own. After this, you can move on to recommendations concerning more complex situations, and only in conclusion - to attempts to correct personal anxiety.
This sequence of actions is reasonable and justified, because with a decrease in the level of anxiety is very important, so that the client is constantly receiving positive reinforcements from the efforts he makes. One or two malfunctions will suffice, and positive shifts will come to naught: the entrenched habit will recover and the entrenched habit will react too emotionally, with an increased level of anxiety to react to any situation, and do it before it is realized and understood. This, in turn, will further increase the level of human anxiety.
A lot of anxiety in life is also delivered by such character traits as aggressiveness. A person with increased aggression (hostility) relating to other people, can hardly expect to be treated kindly to himself.
An aggressive person is not born, but mainly becomes due to lacks of upbringing, when, for example, in childhood, for a sufficiently long time, he is hostile to himself and, in addition, when he sees around himself in the behavior of other people not only nobody not condemned, but also actively supported aggressive actions. Over time, such actions themselves begin to be considered as a norm in the interpersonal behavior of people. Becoming an adult, such a person most often does not notice the manifestations of his own aggressive behavior and does not understand very well why other people are unkind towards him.
In this case, it is useful to conduct a psychological test of the client to determine the degree of his own aggression to prove to him that he has such a negative character trait as aggressiveness.
Useful information about the aggressive trends in the behavior of the client can give a test Rosenzweig, modified to assess aggressiveness1. This test, however, is applicable mainly to children older than ten to fifteen years and to adults.
If in the course of psychological counseling there is a need to clarify the degree of development in the client's strong-willed character traits, then in this case a test for willpower may prove useful.
Sometimes the problem of a person's character is that he is not sufficiently independent, psychologically too dependent on the surrounding people, but at the same time actively strives and very much eager to become more independent. In this case, in order to clarify whether a client's real problem really lies in the lack of autonomy, and also determine how much he has developed the desire for independence (maybe his problem is not in the character itself but in the absence of proper motivation), it is recommended turn to a special test for independence.
When advising on the development of business characteristics of a person is one of the first most often raises the question of whether or not a person has a sense of responsibility. It is known that this important feeling and the corresponding business quality of a person is functionally connected with the so-called level of subjective control (USC): the higher the responsibility, the higher the USC, and vice versa - the lower the liability, the lower the USC. Therefore, referring to the psychological test USK, the results of testing can be judged on the development of the client's responsibility, as a specific character trait.
Among the business traits of nature, on which the life success of a person depends, the person's self-confidence also applies. The degree of development of this quality in the client can be judged by the results of his testing using the technique "The exit from difficult life situations."
A confident person will find it easy and quick to find a way out of difficult life situations, and a self-confident person will do it with great difficulty.
Another important business quality of a person, acting as a trait of his character, is the desire to achieve success. The degree of development of this quality in children of older preschool and primary school age can be judged as a result of their psychological examination using the technique Remember and reproduce the drawing. " To study the motivation for achieving success in adults, another method - a projective type based on the well-known Thematic Apperceptive Test (TAT) - is suitable.
Note that both methods are laborious enough. They should be addressed only when there is no other way to assess this character trait, or when the client, along with a counselor psychologist or a practical psychologist engaged in correcting the appropriate motivation, will have to work for a long time to develop the client's motivation to achieve success and reduce the strength of the motive avoiding failures.
If the testing task is to quickly, but not necessarily accurately assess the relevant character traits from the client, then it's best to consult the questionnaire methodology2. The advantage of this technique over the previous one is not only that it is less time consuming, but also that this technique allows us to separately evaluate the desire to achieve success in men and women.Often people come to psychological counseling, whose problem is to accurately assess and further develop one more important business characteristic of their character, namely, desire, desire and ability to become a leader for other people. In this case, the following techniques could be practically useful: Leader and "Leadership Effectiveness".
If the client's character problems relate to the content and style of his communication with other people, i.e. are, in their nature, communicative, then for psychological testing the client is recommended to use, in particular, the following psychodiagnostic techniques: "What is the child in the relationship with the surrounding people?", "Communicative-personal questionnaire for parents, educators and relatives of the child."
These two techniques are recommended for use in testing pre-school children. In the case of a survey of children attending school and junior school children for the same purpose, a "Questionnaire for Parents, Teachers and Teachers" can be added to these techniques.
With the psychodiagnosis of adolescents, older students and adults, a very chain information about communicative traits of character allows one to obtain the techniques "Semantic differential", "Objectivity test for people", "Affiliation test".
Clients who turned to psychological counseling about characterological problems are often concerned with the question of whether they have so-called abnormal, close to pathological, traits, for example, accentuations of character or complexes. In this case, as a rule, a multifaceted natocharacterological examination of the client is required, and there is a need for simultaneous access to many psychodiagnostic, including multifactor, techniques.
In this regard, it is recommended, in particular, to use the following methods:
• A child's version of the personal test of Kettel.
It is best suited for testing preschool and primary school children;
• SAN methodology.
This technique is designed primarily for people of adolescence and older. She, however, does not allow to give the client an accurate diagnosis for the presence or absence of anomalous character traits, but it gives an opportunity indirectly, according to the prevailing state of health, activity and mood, to judge whether the person is likely to have abnormal traits. In this regard, this technique is recommended to use the first in order during the psychological examination of adults;
• questionnaire by A. T. Gersild.
This questionnaire is complex and allows more definite than SAN to judge the client's abnormal character traits requiring psycho-correction. It is recommended to apply to this questionnaire when the psychologist-consultant has an opinion that the client may well have abnormal character traits and need to be adjusted.
The questionnaire Gersild, in addition, allows you to clarify the problems of the client and differentiate related recommendations.
• When studying character accentuations in adolescents and older students, you can also use the famous Licko test.
In all other cases, a counselor psychologist should refer to techniques developed in various areas of special psychology and defectology. However, it should be remembered that a practical psychologist can not engage in counseling on issues related to psychiatry or defectology (special pedagogy and psychology).
Motives and needs tests
When conducting a psychodiagnosis of motivation, it is desirable to keep in mind the following points.
The most suitable for psychodiagnostics in this case are survey methods. They are more understandable to the client and less time-consuming to handle the counselor psychologist than, for example, projective methods. However, the latter - projective methods - usually give more accurate and reliable information about the motives of the client's behavior than the survey methods.
The counselor-psychologist should be able to choose independently such methods of psychodiagnostics of motivation, which would take into account the following important circumstances.
If a psychologist needs to quickly get reliable and at least approximate information about the motivation of the client's behavior and if the counselor is confident that the questionnaire technique can quite solve this problem, then it should be preferred to other methods. In this case, the questionnaire itself should be as short and simple as possible.
If the consultant psychologist has serious reasons to doubt the reliability of the results obtained with the help of the questionnaire, then one should turn to the use of indirect, in particular, projective, methods of assessing the motivation of the client. Projective methods are especially necessary, for example, when the so-called unconscious needs and inclinations of the client are subject to assessment, such motives that the client will willingly or unwillingly try to hide from the counselor psychologist, answering open questions.
Taking into account these remarks, we recommend using the following psychodiagnostic methods of client motivation in the process of psychological counseling.
When assessing the motivation for achieving success in children of preschool and primary school age - the technique of Remember and reproduce the drawing. "
This is a projective-type methodology, quite complex in terms of processing the results, but it is quite objective and accessible to children of the appropriate age, interesting for them. It is valid and accurate.
However, a counselor psychologist or his assistant, who conducts psychological testing, needs to learn how to use this technique in advance. Only in the case of error-free use it can be expected to obtain accurate and quite valid results.
A similar type of motivation in children of older adolescence, as well as in adults, can be determined using one of the following methods: "Questionnaire for assessing the need for success" and a special technique of a projective type designed to measure the motives for success and avoid failure.
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