TESTS RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSULTATION PRACTICE
In this chapter, for typical cases of psychological counseling - when there is a need for cognitive psychological testing, psychodiagnostic tests are indicated, which are recommended to be used to obtain the necessary information about the client. This information can be useful for clarifying the diagnosis of the client's problem, for elucidating the individual characteristics of his cognitive processes, for correcting existing shortcomings in the development of cognitive processes and for more precise formulation of appropriate practical recommendations.
In each case, we will indicate the purpose of the psychological testing, as well as give practical recommendations on the use of certain tests. Throughout this and subsequent chapters of the textbook, we will repeatedly refer the reader to various recommended tests. If these tests have already been published in the literature - and there are a majority of such tests - we will simply point to the relevant primary sources. In the absence of publications, a psychological test will be fully cited in the textbook. In addition to the test itself, the rationale for the need for psychological counseling will also be given, and the conditions for the optimal practical use of the appropriate test will be determined.
Tests of cognitive processes of perception, attention, imagination, speech and general intellectual abilities
Necessity and assessment of the client's general intellectual abilities arise when, for example, psychological counseling is carried out to solve problems of intellectual development of children or the general abilities of adults. In the first of these cases, the client - and his role is usually played by someone close to the child of adults - requires detailed information about the level of general mental development of the child and what are the real prospects for improving his intelligence. In the second case, the client himself may need information about the level of his intellectual development at a given time.
When it comes to the development of the general abilities of people, it should be borne in mind that in both children and in adults the ability for objective and natural causes may be at different levels of development. In children, especially preschoolers, these abilities have yet to develop, and they are in adults, as a rule, are already sufficiently developed.
The intellect of the child and the intellect of an adult differ significantly both in quantitative (numerical estimation of the level of its development) and qualitatively (intellect type and one hundred structure). For this reason, it is recommended to apply various psychological tests for psychodiagnosis of the intellect of children and adults.
Carrying out psychodiagnostics of the general level of intellectual development of the child, it should also be borne in mind that in the early years the child's intelligence develops rather quickly and the level of its development can change every two to three years. Therefore, those methods of his psychodiagnostics, which are suitable for children of three to four years of age, already have to be replaced by others, conducting psycho-diagnostics of the intellectual development level of four-five-year-olds and especially six-seven-year old children.
Note that there are two significantly different views on the level of development of the general intellectual abilities of man. One such view includes the content of the concept level of intellectual development only the ability of a person to solve all sorts of intellectual problems (this is a relatively narrow understanding of the intellect). The other view encompasses all cognitive processes and includes not only thinking, but also perception, attention, memory, imagination, and speech (the expanded interpretation of the concept of "intelligence") in assessing the level of intellectual development.
In the real practice of psychological counseling, one can rely on both a narrow and an expanded interpretation of the intellect, and the decision of the question of what kind of understanding it is to choose depends on the task of psychological counseling. If it is limited to determining only the general level of intellectual development of the client and giving him the most general recommendations for improving mental abilities, then it will be enough to conduct only a general psychodiagnostic of the intellect. If the task is to diversify and evaluate the client's intelligence, offering him such recommendations that can be useful for the development of all or many cognitive processes, then one should rely on an expanded interpretation of the intellect.
In the practice of conducting psychological counseling for children associated with the development of their general intellectual abilities, it is recommended to use private methods designed for a certain age group for psychodiagnostics of intelligence.
For children of three or four years old, there are methods with the names "Nonsense", "Seasons", "Who's missing?", "Circle outline", "Play pictures".
Using the Seasons and What's missing? the level of development in children of visual-figurative thinking is estimated, and by means of techniques "Circle contour" and Play drawings it is possible to assess the level of development of visual-efficient thinking.
For psychodiagnostics of the level of intellectual development of children of four or five years of age, it is recommended to use techniques with the names "What is superfluous here?", "Divide into groups", "Pass through the labyrinth" and Cut out the shape .
Techniques What's unnecessary? and Divide into Groups evaluate the level of development of figurative-logical thinking, and such techniques as "Pass through the labyrinth" and Cut shapes - level of development of visually-effective thinking in children.
It is believed that the child's intellectual abilities need further development, if the intellect indicators for the above methods are less than 7-8 points. When assessing 9-10 points, it is concluded that the child for his age is at a very high level of intellectual development and does not need special attention in this regard from parents and teachers (in this case, the possible concern of adults about lagging behind the child in intellectual development).
With an average of less than 4-5 points with this child, you must additionally engage, because in this case, his intellectual development lags far behind the average level (6-7 points).
If, in addition to diagnosing the general level of intellectual development of the child, it is necessary to conduct a separate psychodiagnostic of the level of development in his basic cognitive processes (except memory - it will be dealt with especially further), then the following private methods are also recommended:
• For the diagnosis of perception use the techniques of "What is missing in these drawings?", "Learn who it is", "What objects are hidden in the drawings?", "What to patch up the rug?"
• for diagnostics of attention - by the methods "Find and delete", "Leave icons", "Remember and place the points";
• for the diagnosis of the imagination - the techniques "Think of a story", "Draw something", "Come up with a game";
• For speech diagnostics, use the techniques Name the words & quot ;, Tell a picture.
Psychodiagnostics of the level of development of intellectual abilities of children 6-7 years of age entering school and just starting to learn in it is recommended to be carried out using the following methods: "General orientation of children in the surrounding world and stock of household knowledge" (variant of the methodology for enrolling in school), "Definition of concepts, clarification of causes, identification of similarities and differences in objects", "Formation of concepts", "Rubik's Cube", "Ravenna D Matrix"
Method Rubik's Cube assesses the level of development of visual-efficient thinking. The "Wounded Matrix" Technique is intended for the diagnosis of figurative-logical thinking, and the methods of "General orientation of children in the world and the stock of household knowledge", "Definition of concepts, clarification of causes, the identification of similarities and differences in objects", "Formation of concepts" - level of development of verbal-logical thinking.
If, in addition to determining the general level of intellectual development of the child and advice on how to increase the level of intellectual development, it is necessary to give recommendations for improving other cognitive processes in children of the age of six or seven, then psychodiagnostics should use the following methods:
• to assess the attention - Landolta Rings (with the help of this technique, the productivity, stability, distribution and switching of attention are evaluated) and a special methodology for determining the amount of attention ';
• for psychodiagnostics of memory - a technique for assessing the volume of short-term visual and auditory memory, operational visual and auditory memory, as well as the dynamic features of the memorization process;
• for psychodiagnostics of the imagination - techniques called "Verbal Fantasy" (speech imagination), Figure (visual imagination) and Sculpture & quot ;;
• for psychodiagnostics of speech - techniques Definition of concepts and Definition of passive and active vocabulary.
The general psychodiagnostics of the level of development of intelligence in younger schoolchildren is produced using the technique "General orientation of children in the world around them and the stock of household knowledge" (options for students of different classes, from the first to the fourth to the fifth), "Formation of concepts", "Ability to count in the mind", "Rubik's Cube", "Raven's Matrices".
In carrying out a multifaceted psychodiagnosis of the intellect of children of this age-one that includes the evaluation of all cognitive processes, it is additionally possible to use those methods that have already been recommended for the study of cognitive processes in children six to seven years old.
Evaluation of the level of development of intellectual abilities of adolescents, boys (girls) and adults can be done using one set of psychodiagnostic techniques, which includes the following tests: "Formation of concepts", "The ability to count in the mind", "Cube Rubik's "," Wound's Matrices "," Logical-Quantitative Relationships " and Eysenck's test (fragments).
Each of these methods practically assesses the various aspects of the intellect, and they should be applied depending on what purpose, when conducting psycho diagnostics, the counselor-psychologist poses for himself.
In order to make it easier to navigate through the selection of psychodiagnostic techniques when conducting psychological counseling, we explain with reference to each of the listed methods, what practical task it solves.
Methodology Formation of concepts allows you to quickly assess the level of general intellectual development of a person, but such an assessment is general, not sufficiently differentiated. This methodology shows well how the client has developed an internal plan for complex intellectual actions, including how this person can classify, compare, analyze, abstract, summarize, create and implement various action plans, and change their strategy, tactics, and consider allowed errors.
This technique is good because it depends little on the past experience of the person and on his knowledge, skills and habits. Its application is primarily recommended in cases where it is important to accurately determine the prospects for further intellectual development of the client, the zone of his nearest development (LS Vygotsky). The higher the indicator of the intellectual development of the client in this method, the greater are the possibilities of its further intellectual development, including general and a number of special intellectual abilities depending on them.
Methodology Skill to think in the mind something somewhat resembles its previous methods, but unlike the previous one, it is not recommended to use it separately, since it basically estimates the score in the mind, which is not equal to the intellect as a whole. The results of this technique to a greater extent than the results of psychodiagnostics, conducted through the technique of "Formation of concepts", affects the experience of man, in particular his ability to count in the mind. It is best to use this technique to determine the level of actual development of special, for example mathematical, abilities.
Method Rubik's Cube in general, it also does not allow to adequately assess the level of intellectual development of a person, but it does not badly diagnose the development of a person's visual-efficient thinking, especially in its initial forms. By them we mean such forms, which are not so much a manifestation of already more or less developed mental faculties, as potentially available to a person's makings. If, for example, a child successfully copes with a Rubik's cube, then on this basis it can be concluded that he has a good representation of the makings for the development of practical thinking.
Raven's Matrix is good in that it allows to diagnose imaginative thinking and can practically be used to achieve the same goals (in terms of diagnostics of visual-figurative thinking) for which the Rubik's Cube is used.
Methodology Logic-Quantitative Relationships allows to carry out psychodiagnostics of two aspects of the internal plan of mental actions: the logic of thinking and counting in the mind with the memorization of intermediate results.
This technique, however, is able to evaluate each of these aspects of mental actions is not as good as, for example, the technique of "Forming concepts" or the technique "Skill to count in the mind", but in practical application is much simpler than these techniques. It should be addressed when it is necessary to quickly and at least approximately assess the level of development of the relevant abilities in humans.
Eysenck's test is a universal and one of the best psychological tests of intelligence. It is designed to assess the level of the person's overall intellectual development, as well as the level of development of some special types of thinking, in particular mathematical and linguistic thinking.
This test is recommended to use in the practice of psychological counseling, not in general, but in individual subtests, choosing them depending on what the client's problem and the purpose of the psychological counseling are. If, for example, this goal is to determine the overall level of human intellectual development, then one or two general-purpose subtests can be used. If the task is to determine the levels of development of the client's mathematical or linguistic thinking, respectively, then it is recommended to use special subtests.
Note that in the full Eisenck test there are eight different subtests. For practical psychodiagnostics, conducted within the framework of psychological counseling, it is enough to use only the four subtests named above. To Eysenck's test, it is recommended, in addition, to apply when the purpose of psychological counseling is to accurately determine the level of intellectual development of the client in comparison with other people. Eysenck's test in this regard is useful in counseling on vocational guidance and professional selection.
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