Anti-social behavior is any competitive, intimidating or damaging activity that damage or destroys another person's quality of life. People with anti-social behaviour used to be called psychopaths or sociopaths. (http://www. homeoffice. gov. uk/anti-social-behaviour/what-is-asb/). The disorder is characterised by pervasive violation of the rights of others, from early youth and continuing into adulthood. The signs and symptoms include failure to comply with communal norms, repeated lying down or swindling for pleasure or personal gain. Difficulty to hold down jobs and or to honour financial obligations. A large proportion of crimes are created by people with antisocial behavior. (Colman, 1999). Alternatively, addititionally there is pro-social behaviour, which can be thought as doing something voluntarily, with no intentions of gaining anything from this. This may also be called helping behaviour. It's the absolutely complete opposite to anti-social behavior. Anti-social behaviour is most surely very terrifying and uncomfortable for other folks in world. Anti-social behaviour is becoming more of a massive problem, especially in binge drinking alcohol offenders. 'The Basic Household Survey found that 37% of men and women exceeded the daily advised drinking alcohol levels (41% of men and 34% of women)'. (The Guardian), (23rd Dec 2003) www. guardian. co. uk
The aim of this essay is to critically examine three psychological perspectives. The first perspective that will be evaluated is Behaviourist Way. Another perspectives which will be critically examined will be Humanistic Procedure and lastly would be the Psychoanalytical Approach.
Behaviourism Approach was founded by John Watson in 1913. http://www. psych. utah. edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/Watson. html. John Watson presumed that behaviourism should be observed as science. Among the best-known aspects of behavioural learning theory is classical conditioning. Determined by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process occurring through organizations between an environmental stimulus and a normally occurring stimulus. Operant conditioning was founded by the Pennsylvanian psychologist B. F Skinner. This technique of learning occurring through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an association is manufactured between a behavior and a outcome for that behaviour. ''All we need to know to be able to describe and explain behavior is this: activities accompanied by good outcomes will probably recur, and actions accompanied by bad benefits are less inclined to recur'' (Skinner, 1953). (http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/authors/b/b_f_skinner. html) Our behaviour develops because of this of punishment or prize. Some psychologists believe that anti-social behaviour advances from our environment, tv set, peers, parents, activities, and also that type of behaviour in children is copied. To support this there have been several experiments completed, such as Bandura's Bobo doll experiment 1961. The aim of this experiment was to see if children that face anti-social behaviour would they imitate the aggressive behaviour when providing the opportunity. There is also a claim that the media influences anti-social behaviour, however to prove this theory the was also an experiment completed. On St. Helena in the South Atlantic. This process also stated that anti-social behaviour is inspired by tv. ' The debate that observing violent television becomes youngsters to assault is not borne out, and this review on St. Helena is the clearest evidence yet. (Charlton, 1998) The children have viewed the same amount of assault and perhaps the same programmes, as British isles children. But they have not ended up away and copied what they have seen'. (http://www. simplypsychology. pwp. blueyonder. co. uk) [Accessed 30th Oct 2009]
The above analysis/experiment completely clashed with the Behaviourist way, as it says that behaviour is copied. The key principal in this is that good behavior will be rewarded and bad behaviour will be punished. The assumptions of the perspective is that people have no choice neither any free will. This point of view is inadequate when responding to anti-social behaviour. If it's true what B. F Skinner and Ivan Pavlov have implied then there should be less anti-social behavior where in simple fact anti-social behaviour is growing. People inside our society commit anti-social behaviour every day and assume that this is completely acceptable. People that binge drink and react inappropriately should be punished, and when they are, most offenders do not service whether they will be punished again. Consequence should be applied immediately when anti-social behavior happens. Oftentimes this can happen as some offenders do not understand the consequences or simply don't value the results or the punishment. Sometimes punishment does not teach appropriate behaviour and in most cases anti-social behavior occurs. This point of view is limited when addressing anti-social behavior and in some instances this may make the offenders worse. It might make offenders worse as they could easily get angry or annoyed. And another crime they might commit crime could be a lot worse.
In 1954 Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow released Humanistic strategy into psychology. The Humanistic strategy targets the conscious head, free will, human being dignity and the capability for self applied actualization. Humanistic way rejects scientific technique like experiments and typically uses qualitative research methods, such as Case studies, casual interviews, open finished questionnaires, Q-Sort Method introduced by Stephenson in 1953. http://www. simplypsychology. pwp. blueyonder. co. uk/humanistic. html. The rule of this way is that individuals could have free will. The study would give attention to Holism which is the study of the complete person. And the study of the do it yourself (do it yourself Worthing, self-image and self-actualization. ) This perspective may give us an answer why Anti Community Behaviour happens. It could also give psychologist a desire to find a remedy to Anti Sociable Behaviour problems. Humanistic way presumed in people having free will and do not use laboratories to be able to support experiments, if this approach were to be utilized to treat anti-social behaviour a lot would have to be learned all about the binge drinking alcohol offenders. The condition with this process is that experiments won't be accurate and never will give a precise answer in mindset. As the Humanistic methodology ignores unconscious mind, and will not use any clinical tests. Qualitative data is highly difficult to compare. Therefore this process will not make clear or give any accuracy and reliability in psychology. The essential assumptions of the approach is the fact humans will have free will, and that not all behavior is determined. Other assumptions or maybe even beliefs is the fact human behavior should only be examined on humans rather than pets, as humans do not respond like family pets. Another assumption of the approach is that psychology should analyze at a person's case level instead of the average performance of categories. So does this approach cure anti-social behaviour especially binge drinking? Somewhat the Humanistic methodology could possibly clarify anti-social behaviour, however as humanism do not use any clinical experiments and all the research is performed by, informal interviews, open concluded questionnaires, and so many more. People who are offenders of anti-social behavior may have these tests about them that may then tell us more why this behavior has been done by them, and perhaps even help them. On the other hand, people that have been indulging in anti-social behavior, especially binge drinking would not agree to be doing any tests or tests. So this approach will not give us an answer why anti-social behavior happens. As people won't want to take part. Humanistic approach could be employed to real life however as humanistic strategy agrees with free will people would have to agree to be a part of any experiments and lab tests.
In 1896 Sigmund Freud, an Austrian neurologist founded the psychoanalytic perspective. . Research into this is done by different case studies, hypnosis, also by free connection and different projective checks. Assumptions of this, psychological point of view was that behavior is rooted from years as a child. According to this perspective behaviour comprises of three parts: the id, ego and superego. Our behaviour and emotions are powerfully influenced by unconscious motives. We were holding some of the assumptions of the psychoanalytical approach in psychology, however there are few more such as personality is molded as the drives are changed by different conflicts at differing times in child years (during psychosexual development). Inside the run, the question would be could the psychoanalytical strategy explain anti-social behaviour. The solution would be definitely no, because so many case studies that Freud did were mainly middle older women from Vienna (i. e. his patients). This makes generalisations to the wider people (e. g. the whole world) difficult. The main problem here's that the truth studies derive from studying one individual at length. The criticism of the psychoanalytical methodology is that it's unscientific in its examination of human behaviour. So no, the methodology do not have much of a chance at giving a conclusion about anti-social behavior. As it was described earlier the exams that were completed and the experiments which were done are only concentrating on one person or Freud's patients. This is highly biased, as this does not look at the bigger picture, and including more people into this. This process won't give us an answer why for example a middle older man is binge drinking and behaving within an anti-social way. It will not give an explanation as all Freud studies were carried out on women, all over the same get older. Also many people are an individual with different views and needs.
The conclusion upon this essay will concentrate on the both negative and positive key points in every three perspectives. With Behaviouristic Methodology the positive points should be that this approach is completely scientific and that there is research behind all experiments that were done. And in addition it has discovered comparisons between pets or animals and humans. On the other hand the negative things in this process are that it is too deterministic therefore humans experienced hardly any free will, which it totally ignores biology. Within the Humanistic approach there's also advantages and disadvantages. The positives would be that the concentration of behavior to the average person / entire person rather than the unconscious mind, genes, observable behavior. Highlights the worthiness of more individualistic and idiographic methods of analysis. The negatives would be that this whole approach is unscientific, any qualitative data is very hard to compare so that it possible be inaccurate. Coming to the third approach the Psychoanalytical, the positives in this process would be that approach highlighted the value of years as a child and the unconscious mind. Negatives would be that is Unscientific, too deterministic, which means that folks have little free will and incredibly biased examples have been used in the experiments. The whole point of the, is to point out that no perspectives in psychology can fully clarify the reasons for any anti-social behavior. As has been pointed out in other paragraphs little or nothing has been 100% successful.
- Information about anti-social behavior online at: http://www. homeoffice. gov. uk/anti-social-behaviour/ and http://www. homeoffice. gov. uk/anti-social-behaviour/what-is-asb/ Assessed 30th October 2009
- More information about anti-social behavior and explanation available from content material book: What is Mindset? (3rd release) Andrew M Colman, 1999
- Statistics about binge taking in available online at: www. guardian. co. uk Assessed 23rd Oct 200 (The Guardian), (23rd Dec 2003)
- Direct quotation from B. F. Skinner available at: http://www. brainyquote. com/quotes/authors/b/b_f_skinner. html
- and also: Mindset: The Science of Mind and Behaviour (Hodder Arnold Publication) by Richard Gross
- John Watson creator of behaviourism information available on: http://www. psych. utah. edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/Watson. html
- Direct price about St. Helena test available from: Adam L Charlton 1998
- Information about St. Helena Experiment information can be found from: http://www. simplypsychology. pwp. blueyonder. co. uk Accessed 30th Oct 2009
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