Application of associative theory in pedagogical practice
Within the framework of associative psychology, scientists developed numerous recommendations for both educators and parents. From the point of view of associative psychologists, one of the tasks facing a developing person is the need to accumulate various impressions and the desire for these impressions to be correct. Correctness of the impression means that the image of one object does not follow include impressions about another object. In addition, these impressions must be related to the right words. Thus, for proper development, the child must provide two main conditions: his attention should be focused only on those impressions that correspond to the properties of this object, and accurately name the object to which these impressions correspond. If a child calls something wrong, one of the main reasons is considered his inattention.
Psychologists believed that it's easier to provide attention when objects are extremely simple. Therefore, the path of development of the child's consciousness was presented as a path of development from the simple to the complex.
According to the associative position, the child does not need to give too complex impressions. The younger the children, the easier it is to offer them material for learning.
The teacher, from the point of view of associative psychologists, is obliged to be able to systematize the material, select the most visible examples accessible to children's attention and to ensure that the impressions received from these samples form the correct ideas about them. To achieve maximum effect, teachers need to ensure that all children are focused on the proposed material. In this case, children should establish a certain relationship between the word (the name of the material) and the qualities of this material. You can check this connection with the help of questions, and you can establish a connection in the process of repeated repetition, and repeating aloud with a group of children.
In order to attract children's attention, the material to be mastered must be brighter compared to other objects, so children should not have anything unnecessary, distracting attention: tables should be freed from foreign objects, and the teacher should not dress properly and emotionally smoothly communicate with children. In addition, a number of auxiliary tools should be used: a pointer (to control the attention of children), schemes (to highlight the most important properties of objects) so that the child can focus on them. Children during the lesson should not be distracted by anything else. Therefore, classes like mosaic, construction and drawing, in the opinion of associative psychologists, are most important for the development of children's attention and must be included in the system of preschool education.
The system of requirements developed by the associative psychology gradually took shape in the so-called traditional education system.
The main features of this model are the location of the material in the logic "from simple to complex", "from visual to abstract" etc. All the diversity of reality is divided into three groups of objects: numbers, geometric forms and words. Associative psychologists believed that these groups of objects characterize the most important relationships between elements of reality, since all knowledge could be imagined either in a system of quantitative relations (for example, the number of legs in an animal), or in a system of geometric forms (various forms of an animal's body) system of concepts ( mammal ).
Numbers, shapes, and words were not immediately understood. The form was decomposed into simple elements, such as a line, a circle, a triangle, a square; the numbers were decomposed into units (for example, the number five consists of five units); words - on letters (if the word is transmitted in writing) or on sounds (if it is transmitted orally). When the child was introduced to letters, then, in turn, the letter was decomposed into geometric elements (sticks, hooks). Thus, the child first mastered the simplest elements, and then moved on to more complex ones.
The traditional education system was quite efficient, designed for a relatively stable, inactive reality. The main thing was that it was relatively cheap, because it implied a class-based learning system.
Many positions of the associative position were embodied in the system of Maria Montessori. The merit of M. Montessori is the development of an educational process for children with intellectual developmental difficulties at the age of three to six years. She believed that for this age it is very important that children develop different sensations, speech and motor skills. The Montessori system is based on special materials developed by her for teaching children. Materials are sets of different objects with which a child can interact. For example, samples of various fabrics were used as the material: silk, velvet, etc. Children could feel the samples, which contributed to the formation of an accurate image of the relevant material. Thus, the material in the Montessori system reproduced one of the main ideas of associative psychology: attention to the object can be increased if the child interacts with it with his hands. The psychologist proceeded from the fact that children should receive the widest possible variety of sensations and correctly identify them with the help of words. To do this, she selected the tasks that, on the one hand, allowed children to focus on objects for a long time (such as unfolding the cylinders in the corresponding holes), and on the other hand they were supplemented with a verbal indication of the impressions the child received.
The peculiarity of the Montessori system was that the children could accurately isolate the impression they received. At the same time, to a large extent, they did this on their own, and the adult, following the actions of the child, tactfully helped him to formalize the result in the speech. Montessori believed that at the age of four years it was important to teach children to write and read, for which she used the technique of writing a finger on a screen of sand. Here the idea of associative psychology is traced in the same way: tactile sensations arising as a result of contact with the object, allow the child to keep attention. In addition, Montessori specifically coached children with various skills in the logic "from simple to complex". For example, the skill of tying the laces was mastered gradually: at first the children performed lacing on special devices and only then switched to lacing the shoes. Montessori believed that the teacher should adapt to the child's capabilities and interests. If the teacher can identify the main interest of the child at the moment, then he will be able to pick up the appropriate material for him, over which the child will work hard and develop their skills in the future.
Maria Montessori also paid much attention to the interaction of children with natural objects. She believed that, for example, caring for plants and animals promotes the development of a sense of responsibility in children. Thus, the application of the ideas of associative psychologists in Montessori's system consists in the fact that she sharply strengthened the role of sensations in the educational process, real interaction with objects, paid much attention to the development of speech and writing, and the development of childish arbitrariness, which she understood as concentration child in one form or another of classes.
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