Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development is one of the famous theories of personality in psychology. This theory quite simply related to the impact of sociable experience over the whole life expectancy. Erikson regarded Freud's efforts but thought that Freud misjudged some important proportions of human being development. Unlike what is said by Freud, Erikson said we develop in psychosocial stages, alternatively than in psychosexual stages. This theory consists of eight levels of development: Trust versus mistrust; Autonomy versus pity and doubt; Effort versus guilt; Industry versus inferiority; Identification versus identity distress; Intimacy versus isolation; Generativity versus stagnation; Integerity versus despair.
The basic idea of Erikson's theory.
The application of Erikson's theory to child development.
The application of Erikson's theory to children in preschool and early on primary levels.
1. The basic concept of Erikson's theory.
According to Dixon and Stein (2006), Erik Erikson broadened and prolonged Freudian theory to include the whole life pattern into eight stages of his theory. In deciding the outcome of each developmental level, he brought in the influence of world beyond the family. Each stage is seen as a negotiation of one central issue that is essential for emotional growth to another level. With the forces of culture, family, individual variations and the changing demands of contemporary society makes deviation in these stage-locked jobs widely applicable. Dixon and Stein (2006) also state that Erikson's theory expands through adulthood and shows some of the generic issues confronting parents within their own development.
Santrock (2011) areas that once we proceed through life, there is certainly eight stages of development in Erikson's theory that unfold and at each stage, there is a unique developmental activity confronts people with a crisis that must be solved. Erikson also says that this crisis is not really a catastrophe but a making point proclaimed by both increased vulnerability and increased potential. In addition, he proposes that the greater successfully a person resolves the crises, the healthier that person's development will be.
Erikson's first psychosocial level is Trust versus mistrust, which is experienced in the first 12 months of life. Trust in infancy packages the stage for a lifelong expectation that the globe is a good and enjoyable destination to live. Autonomy versus shame and uncertainty is Erikson's second stage. This stage occurs between the age of 1 to three years in past due infancy or toddlerhood. Infants begin to realize that their behavior is their own after getting trust in their caregivers. They learn to assert their sense of independence or autonomy. Nonetheless they are likely to develop a sense of pity and doubt if they're restrained too much or punished too harshly. Third stage in Erikson's psychosocial theory is Initiative versus guilt occurring through the preschool years. Corresponding to Santrock (2011), as preschool children come across a widening communal world, they face new obstacles that require energetic, purposeful, responsible patterns if the child is irresponsible and is made to feel too anxious, thoughts of guilt may happen included. Industry versus inferiority is Erikson's fourth developmental level, developing approximately in the primary institution years. Children in this level need to steer their energy toward learning knowledge and intellectual skills. Yet, in this level also there can be done negative outcome this is the child may develop a sense of inferiority like sense incompetent and unproductive. The next stage relates to adolescent years so that we know adolescent years full with troubles when we can see teenagers start looking for his or her identities. There are few problems that individuals encounter through the adolescent years such as who they really are, and where they are going in life. If teenagers explore jobs in a healthy manner and reach a positive path to follow in life, then they achieve a positive identification; if not, individuality confusion reigns. This is what Erikson's fifth theory all about, Identity versus identification confusion. Erikson's 6th developmental stage is Intimacy versus isolation, which individuals experience through the early adulthood years. In this stage, individuals face the developmental process of forming close associations. Intimacy will be performed if young adults form healthy friendships and an intimate relationship with another but isolation will be acquired if it's not. Generativity versus stagnation is Erikson's seventh developmental stage that occurs during middle adulthood. This period is basically a level of maturity where we have to be actively involved in teaching and guiding younger generation. The sensation of experiencing done nothing at all to help the next generation is stagnation. Erikson's eight and final stage of development is Integrity versus despair, which individuals experience in past due adulthood. During this level, a person examines and displays on days gone by. If we look back with a sense of fulfillment and satisfaction, thinking we have sufficiently coped with life's victories and failures, then were said to achieve integrity. In a straightforward word, integrity includes receiving one's place and one's past. On the other hand, if we review our life with a sense of frustration, angry about missed opportunities and regretful of errors that cannot be corrected, then we will feel despair. Besides, we dropped disgusted with ourselves, contemptuous of others, and bitter over what might have been.
Here is the diagram of the eight stages which have been mentioned previously and explained in Erikson's psychosocial theory.
2. The use of Erikson's theory to child development.
In the essential concept above we have discussed about main ideas of each phases. Now we wished to look more on first four periods that apply to child development, specifically from baby until years as a child years. We will not consider the fifth stage and later on because those stages related to adolescent times already.
"It really is human to have a long youth; it is civilized with an even longer youth. Long child years makes a technological and mental virtuoso out of man, but it addittionally eaves a life-long residue of mental immaturity in him" - Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-1994)
According to Davis and Clifton (1995), Erikson believed that childhood is very important in personality development. He accepted many of Freud's theories, including the identification, ego, and superego, and Freud's theory of infantile sexuality. However Erikson sensed that personality continuing to build up beyond five years of age and because of it, he declined Freud's attempt to describe personality exclusively based on sexuality. The first four phases parallel stages of psychosexual development outlined by Freud.
The first level is infancy, roughly the first calendar year. The conflict at this time, which is the most important turmoil of life, is between a feeling of basic trust versus basic mistrust. In such a phase, the infant totally depend on others to meet its most basic needs. If the needs are achieved, the infant will more than likely develop a sense of security and trust. This is shown by the infant's feeding easily, sleeping well, and getting rid of regularly. Caretakers can leave the infant alone for brief periods without causing too much stress, because the infant has learned to trust that they will return. On the other hand, mistrust is shown by fitful rest, fussiness in feeding, constipation, and greater distress when the newborn is left only. The sense of trust is actually significant to infants. It provides a basis for believing that the earth is predictable, especially in interactions. Trust can also be enhanced by conversation in which caregivers are attentive, affectionate, and reactive. Inconsistent treatment, mental unavailability, or rejection can create a sense of mistrust too. This portrayal carefully resembles ideas concerning object relations, basic nervousness, and attachment patterns earlier in this chapter.
The second stage is early years as a child which occurs in the second and third many years of life. Children commence to give attention to getting control over their activities. The crisis of this stage is about creating a sense of autonomy in activities versus pity and hesitation about having the ability to act separately. Erikson implemented Freud in assuming that toilet training was an important event here but for different reasons. By acquiring control over bladder and bowels is ways to gain feelings of autonomy (self-direction), this is what Erikson believed. Achieving control of these functions means you are not at the mercy of your own body's impulses. But this is just one way to gain these emotions. When children interact effectively with people and objects, feelings of autonomy and competence emerge. In the event the attempts lead to inability, ridicule, or criticism or if parents don't let the children act on their own, the result is sensing of pity and self-doubt. Management of this conflict properly contributes to the ego meet the criteria of will; a dedication to exercise free choice.
The next period is preschool which occurs between your ages of three to five. Being autonomous and with the capacity of controlling your actions is an important start, but it is just a start. An capacity to manipulate objects in the world leads to a fascinating aspire to exert influence, to make things happen - in a nutshell, a desire for electricity (McAdams, 1985). This period corresponds to the stage where Freud noticed Oedipal conflicts appearing. Even as said earlier, folks who are skeptical about the Oedipal discord tend to treat Freud's depiction as a metaphor for a far more extensive power struggle between parents and child, who by now has become willful. Erikson focused on this power have difficulty. The conflict at this stage concerns effort versus guilt. Children who take the initiative would like to impose their newly developed sense of will on the surroundings. They point out and act on the interest as they explore and change their world and have about things going on around them. Works and words can also be perilous, however. Action that is too powerful can cause others pain. For example, getting a toy you want can stress another child. Requesting too many questions may become tiresome to people. If taking the initiative too often brings about disapproval, sense of guilt will end result. If this problems is handled well, the child emerges with the ego quality of goal: the courage to go after appreciated goals without concern with abuse. Research has asked whether attaining a feeling of basic trust during the first year fosters later effort. In one study (Lutkenhaus, Grossmann, & Grossmann, 1985), connection was assessed at get older one and the kids were researched again (at home) at time three. Those that had been securely attached were quicken showing initiative in getting together with a stranger than those who was simply insecurely attached. Throughout a game involving a failure, securely fastened children responded by increasing their efforts, however the other not doing so.
The next stage corresponds to Freud's latency period which occurs from years of five to eleven. Unlike Freud, Erikson placed that period also has a issue. He called it industry versus inferiority. This term industry reflects the fact that the child's life remains centered on doing things which may have an impact. But now the nature of these efforts acquires some other shade of interpretation. In particular, it is no more enough just to take the effort and assert power. There is pressure to do stuff that others assess to be good, in two senses. Industriousness is not merely doing things; it does things that others value. Additionally it is doing things with techniques that others consider as appropriate and commendable. The turmoil over this sense of industry commences about when the child enters elementary university.
3. The application of Erikson's theory to children in preschool and early major levels.
We have reviewed a great deal about phases in Erikson's psychosocial theory. Now let stress more on previous stage of youth which is the fourth stage in Erikson's theory that applies in early primary levels. WHEN I mentioned previously, when the kid enters elementary college, this is actually the period where in fact the problems over this sense of industry begins. Generally university is targeted at teaching children to be productive and liable members of population. The school years are also the time when intellectual skills are first analyzed. Children are urged to do well in institution, and the adequacy with their performance is explicitly examined. Besides that, the school experience also entails learning social functions. Children are beginning to learn about the type of adult work. For instance, they are exposure for some of the tools of mature work. In previous times, we were holding tools of farming, carpentry, and homemaking; today, it is more likely to be computers and machines.
Another role children are acquiring is that of citizenship. Thus, the child's sense of industry is being judged partly by the acceptability of his or her action to the sociable group. Children with a strong sense of industry differ in several aspects from children with less industry (Kowaz & Marcia, 1991). For example, first they have a tendency to choose reality-based activities over illusion. Second, these are more able to separate the role of work from that of capability in producing results. Next, they get better grades. Plus they also concur more with claims that are socially desirable. To emerge out of this stage efficiently, children must feel these are mastering the jobs set for them. However, the risk at this stage is developing feelings of inferiority. Such feelings can occur when children are led by others to view their performance as limited or morally wrong. For instance, when their professors compare them in classroom and always compliment the students that get good levels only. Kids that not perform so well will feel neglected and left behind by the professors. Managing the conflicts well in this level is vital as these experience they will utilization in their later life.
All in all, from my research what I could conclude from Erikson's psychosocial theory is it contains its talents and weaknesses. "A number of the talents in Erikson's work is he along with several other researchers found that his eight levels serve as a guide that holds across time and ethnicities as well. While other theorists refer to the ongoing approach of development as levels or transitions, Erikson was unafraid to characterize development as visibly designated stages. Besides that, Erikson's eight periods serve as an overview when it comes to determining our culture or even evaluating it to a culture that experienced existed a few decades back. Most experimental studies based on Erikson's work grasp around his work to ascertain id, but also around his perspective on adolescence. The Eriksonian theory is employed based on the fact that it's been thought as well-equipped to resolve the turmoil of early adulthood, this is successfully reached after the crisis of adolescence has been settled.
Some of the weaknesses regarding Erikson's work also involve his eight phases. Everything will be fine if we agree to his personal understandings of what each level means. However, what must be mentioned is the fact that sometimes in several cultures the timing can be alternatively off when being set alongside the eight stages. Potty training would be one of cases. In some cultures babies are toilet trained by the time that they are nine months of age. In other cultures a couple of years go away until they begin the potty training and are even breasts fed up until the time of five. Another example is that some cultures people marry as early as age thirteen and begin having children shortly after that. Nowadays, in our culture we've the tendency to stay sole, unmarried until around age thirty. Another issue that is pointed out by many theorists is the fact that Erikson's theory is more suitable to young boys than it is for women. Another questionable aspect identifies Erikson's work idea on identity formation. . Erikson's work got a inclination to pay more attention to infancy and years as a child compared to adulthood, despite the so-called claim that his eight stages are an entire-life span theory", ("Strenght and Weaknesses", 2006).
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