The Concept Of Counseling Psychology Essay

The concept of counseling in British English it is spelled counselling has actually been with us for a long time, and it reflects the need for one person to seek help or advice from another person. Counseling as an occupation, therefore, places focus on social settings and will not derive from the clinic. It targets helping people resolve their problems or role issues related to work, school, or in the family. With this setting, the counselor is a "problem solver, " who through direct advice or nondirective guidance, helps his/her "client" (the person seeking help) make rational decisions. Counseling psychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that facilitates personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span with a give attention to emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. Traditionally, counseling psychology has focused more on normal developmental issues and everyday stress rather than psychopathology, but this distinction has softened as time passes.

Psychology as an occupation was practiced for a long time prior to the science of psychology originated. Even before the term "psychologist" was used, people were seeking as well as providing help for psychological issues. Commonly, practitioners counseled people about their anxieties, marriages, careers, raising children, as well as advised people how to perform their companies, how to improve the morale of their employees, etc. Furthermore, spiritual gurus sought to make people aware about this is of life, goals associated with an actualized person, and showed the road and practice to achieve spiritual goals.

The changes that are happening around us are so rapid that past ''truths'' often mislead us rather than providing help. No more could it be easy to apply past truths to the problems of today's and the near future. Today's world ''calls for new methods to experience, both in acquiring it and in using that which we already have'' (Stevens, 1963, p. 56). Modern society is seen as a rapid change and technological advancement. Perhaps never in the annals of humankind have so many changes occurred simultaneously and with such acceleration over so broad a spectral range of diverse areas that impact human life. Changes witnessed through the recent past occurred at a larger speed in comparison to those of previous decades (Raina, 1989, p. 43).

Mitchell (1993) explains the major global changes which may have continued into the 21st century. He describes the "accelerating rate of change on a global scale, " pointing to the pace of change of human invention, the speed of generation of new knowledge, human population growth, and the evolution and speed of human transportation. He argues that the explosion of information is occurring at an unimaginable speed that almost all of the things that the small children are currently learning will be obsolete by enough time they grow up. We have never been in this situation before.

While an extremely strong case has been made in the scientific community about days gone by being obsolete, an equally strong, perhaps even stronger argument is being placed about the importance of not breaking the string, which links us to our past. This string provides us with the sanity associated with continuity and peace related to history.

What is counseling?

Life is fraught with stress, anxiety, and challenges. When one feels uncomfortable or overwhelmed with these challenges, he/she can talk to a specialist in a completely confidential setting. This technique is called counseling. The results of counseling tend to be more favorable when clients understand what to anticipate from the process. This book provides information to assist students of counseling and in assisting their clients understand the broad field of counseling and the intricate process of counseling.

Living is a process of constantly adjusting ourselves to the environment as well as making necessary and possible modifications inside our lifestyle to be able to suit our needs and requirements. These procedures consume our physical and mental energies to a substantial extent. As the civilization becomes increasingly more complex, the process of living becomes more knotty. Though scientific and technological advances make our lives convenient, in addition they make it more difficult. Conflicts have multiplied and as a result, decision-making needs have risen exponentially.

Many of the problems stem from what we wish and everything we think we have to want-a tug of war between the priorities of the top and the heart. The task then is always to get our priorities right and synchronized-to want what is right. Maintaining this regularly throughout our lives is most difficult. Thus our problems originate in our mind. Yet, this is the glory of the human mind: its unique capacity to inquire in to the nature and meaning of things, to reason out, to analyze, to appreciate subtleties, to imagine, to conceptualize, to come quickly to conclusions, and also to make choices.

Ironically we yearn for the simple living of the yesteryears, while holding on to the comforts of the present world. Throughout, we see people struggling to make progress. Paradoxically, we tend to glorify the uncomplicated existence of your forefathers. Innumerable debates center on this issue. In that conflicting situation, the necessity for counseling is currently felt like nothing you've seen prior.

Counseling describes what sort of person functions effectively or ineffectively in a single or more of the following dimensions of life: need satisfaction, stress and the coping processes, developmental task attainment, social contact and interpersonal relationship skills, and other personal or characteristic attributes. It then discusses the major problems that can impede the effective functioning of individuals. Counseling also illustrates at length that people who are functioning effectively usually (1) gratify their needs in appropriate ways, (2) deal with pressure efficiently, (3) handle their thoughts as well as emotional reactions effectively, (4) learn tasks that are appropriate with their developmental stage, (5) have meaningful social interactions and interpersonal relationships, and (6) display other positive attributes.

Some general characteristics of counseling are as follows

It can be involved with "normal" problems rather than mental health problems.

It can be involved with role function of a person in several settings where choices are to be made and actions are to be taken.

It is more concerned with present events than with those of the past.

It is more concerned with conscious, rational thinking than with unconscious functioning.

Counselors also assist their clients in regions of academic achievement, emotional/psychological and physical health, career involvement, and responsible decision making. The procedure of counseling empowers the clients to meet these needs. The customers must recognize that seeking counseling is not really a sign of weakness. On the other hand, an individual needs courage to explore sensitive feelings and painful experiences. Those that take the first rung on the ladder in resolving problems by seeking counseling display their insight and inner strength. Counseling is more productive if the clients are incredibly clear about the procedure of counseling. It ought to be understood that counseling is not a magic pill, and the counselor will not tell you list of positive actions. Rather, he/she will let the client possess the chance to explore feelings, values, thoughts, concerns, and develop goals and steps leading to those goals. The client then makes choices and decisions. The counselor just helps free the intellectual functioning of the individual, which is hidden behind his/her emotional distress. Counseling is an opportunity for an individual to talk over with a tuned and objective person from whom a new perspective on the situation can be gained. In addition, it helps the average person learn new skills to help resolve current concern and be more with the capacity of solving new problems on their own in the foreseeable future.

In short, counseling promotes growth and helps to

express feelings in a safe, supportive and nonjudgmental atmosphere,

identify and straighten out problems,

identify longstanding patterns of behavior that keep one from solving problems and developing new ways to look at them,

improve coping skills,

identify and achieve goals, and

help recognize internal worth and examine the way one sees oneself.


The word "counseling" derives from the center English counseil, Old French conseil, Latin cnsilium, comparable to cnsulere, meaning to adopt counsel, consult. Counseling can be explained as a comparatively short-term, interpersonal, theory-based procedure for helping people who are fundamentally psychologically healthy to help resolve their developmental and situational issues.

There are most likely as much definitions of counseling as there are practitioners to spell it out it. The word was originally employed by Frank Parsons in 1908. It was adopted by Carl Rogers in response to widespread prejudice in america against lay therapists and also because he had not been then permitted by the psychiatry professionals to call himself a psychotherapist.

Counseling is an interactive procedure for combining the counselee who needs assistance and the counselor who is trained and educated to provide assistance to the couselee (Perez, 1965). The counselor can initiate, facilitate, and keep maintaining the interactive process if he or she communicates feelings of spontaneity and warmth, tolerance, respect, and sincerity.

Smith (1955) defines counseling as "an activity where the counselor assists the counselee to make interpretations of facts associated with a choice, plan or adjustments which he needs to make. "

Blocher (1966) explains it as "helping an individual notice himself and the ways in which he is reacting to the influence of his environment. It further helps him to establish some personal meaning for his behavior; and to develop and clarify a set of goals and value for future behavior. "

Rogers (1952) describes counseling as the process where "the structure of the self is relaxed in the safety of the client's relationship with the therapist, and previously denied experiences are perceived and then built-into an altered self. "

There are a lot more definitions and their explanations are almost the same. Counseling helps visitors to examine and deal effectively with life issues. Some situations faced by people require the need to seek the help of a mental health professional. It is a great way to examine and solve problems and a wholesome way to deal with the often stressful and discouraging issues that accompany a chronic illness. Seeking counseling is also a responsible way to care for oneself, especially if the problems are beyond the standard problems encountered in daily life.

A self-conscious and self-aware person is appreciative of something that is lacking in himself/herself. His mind, being an instrument of reason, searches for means to overcome this deficiency and the individual has a regular tendency to desire and, according to his knowledge and values, tries to achieve it. Being acutely aware of his/her anxieties and lack of peace within, he/she tries to overcome it through the resources available to him/her. This awareness has three dimensions

Awareness of the intensity of the situation depending on how unpleasant it creates one feel.

Awareness of the consequences of the challenge: how bad they are really.

Awareness of the depth of the urge to emerge from the challenge.

When one recognizes his helplessness, uncertainty, and incapacity to accomplish what he/she wants; that there is uncertainty with regards to the fulfillment of wishes and desires; that we now have limitations of strength in terms of will and the capacity to help make the necessary effort; that there are also limitations in conditions knowledge and resources; that there is an absence of freedom mentally, there is the acknowledgment of one's helplessness.

This helplessness assumes the following thought patterns

"I can't take action alone!"

"I feel trapped and there's nowhere to turn!"

"There is absolutely no solution around the corner"!

"I've tried to improve, but things aren't improving"

"My feelings are inside your sleep, eating, job and relationships!"

"I am always worried and I can't stand myself!"

"Even small issues daunt me!"

In these circumstances when the first is overwhelmed by helplessness, he/she seeks the help of your counselor.

A counselor or therapist is a person who can remain objective about the clients' situation. This means that beyond counseling, they're not part of the daily life and can therefore view things from some other, often clearer, perspective than a family member or close friend who is very emotionally involved with them. Additionally, one can talk to the counselor openly without feeling judged.

Counseling psychology as a psychological specialty facilitates personal and interpersonal functioning across the life time with a give attention to emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns. With the integration of theory, research, and practice, and with sensitivity to multicultural issues, this study discipline has a wide range of practices that help people enhance their well-being, alleviate distress and maladjustment, resolve crises, and increase their ability to live on more highly functioning lives.

Though closely related to clinical psychology, counseling psychology differs in several subtle ways. First, counseling psychologists typically give attention to less severe psychopathology (e. g. , depression and anxiety), while clinical psychologists deal with more seriously disturbed individuals (e. g. , those with schizophrenia or personality disorders). In the United Kingdom, however, there is less distinction between the types of illnesses that clinical and counseling psychologists work with. The difference is emphasized more in how they work with a person. Second, counseling psychologists are more likely than clinical psychologists to assume a client-centered or humanistic theoretical approach. Finally, counseling psychology is unique in its attention both on track developmental issues as well as the problems associated with physical, emotional, and mental disorders. Despite these differences, counseling and clinical psychology are becoming increasingly indistinguishable, leading some to claim that these fields be combined.

It is effective to comprehend the titles and functions of the several professionals. A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in treating persons with mental disorders or those experiencing difficulties in their lives. Psychiatrists can prescribe medications; however, it's important to remember that one can seek help from a psychiatrist with no a mental disorder or needing medication. There are numerous psychiatrists who are excellent therapists in addition with their knowledge of medication. A psychologist is a professional trained to provide counseling and therapy. Many psychologists are qualified to administer psychological testing. There exists often confusion about psychiatrists and psychologists. Unlike a psychiatrist, a psychologist is not a medical doctor and cannot write prescriptions for medication. A social worker is a professional who's trained to provide counseling and therapy. Additionally, social personnel often provide community resource and advocacy services.

Counseling is distinguished from other mental health disciplines by both history and emphasis. Other helping professions such as psychiatry and clinical psychology concentrate mostly on the treatment of severe emotional disorders. Social work deals basically with the social and legal areas of assisting others in need. On the other hand, counseling targets development and preventing serious mental health problems through education and short-term treatment. It emphasizes on growth as well as remediation. Counselors use persons, groups, families, and systems that are experiencing situational and long-term problems. The focus of counseling on development, prevention, and treatment make it appealing to those seeking healthy life-stage transitions and productive lives (Cole & Sarnoff, 1980; Romano, 1992).

What are the kinds of issues that lead people to seek counseling?

Anxiety and depression

Family and relationship issues

Substance abuse and other addictions

Sexual abuse, rape, and domestic violence

Eating disorders

Career changes and job stress

Social and emotional issues related to illness and disability

Adaptation alive changes

Grief and bereavement

Problems with shame

Problems dealing with anger

Self-injurious behavior

What do counseling psychologists do?

Counseling psychologists perform a variety of functions that it's hard to provide a synopsis of these role. In most cases, a counseling psychologist can seek advice from with a variety of agencies (e. g. , schools, government, private organizations), teach at the school level (undergraduate and graduate levels), do research, administer therapy (e. g. , group, individual, family), hold academic administrative positions (e. g. , dean of a college), among others.

Counseling psychologists study and work in a variety of settings. Some areas that counseling psychologists work in and study are the following

Vocational psychology

Child development

Adolescent development

Adult development/aging

Health psychology (e. g. , including long-term care, AIDS, cancer, etc. )

Mental illness (e. g. , anxiety disorders)

Forensic psychology

Sport psychology


Aggression/anger control

Anxiety disorders

Interpersonal relationships



Community psychology

Counseling process/outcome

Group processes

Crisis intervention

Developmental disabilities

Eating disorders

Substance abuse

Suicidal and homicidal tendencies



Emergence of counseling as a profession

The quest for the target truth has always weighed the intelligent man down. The countless religions and philosophical orientations hold testimony for this quest. Psychology, which emerged from both religion and philosophy, has been evolving along a similar path. It is only recently that psychologists have shelved the idea of "new theory" and concentrated on "new techniques" using the data uncovered by others before them. This practice has led techniques to become gimmicks! Psychologists claim to are suffering from techniques through experiencing, observing, and reasoning. Though it is commendable that lots of "objective truths" have been uncovered, the credibility of the field suffers from various differences of opinions, foolhardy steadfastness, and unhealthy critiques.

Professional psychotherapy had its you start with the task of Dr. Sigmund Freud at the turn of the twentieth century. Psychoanalysis made fascinating inroads into the science of human behavior. Several eager disciples were drawn to it, but Freud was unable to hold them. Noting discrepancies and exaggerations in the system, they branched off and proceeded to launch their own schools of psychotherapy. After the founding of Freudian psychoanalysis, and the many subsequent neo-Freudian spin-offs, the field witnessed a proliferation of theoretical approaches to psychotherapy.

The branching off of various ideological adherents in so dogmatic a way exhibited a total failure to acknowledge that human being is a total entity. Each new system of remedy faulted, to some extent, most of its predecessors and claimed a status superior to them on one ground or another. Just like the story of the nine blind men sizing up the elephant, each segment claimed superiority over others to the extent that some of them even refused to acknowledge the contribution of others. Thus after chancing upon one "truth, " they disqualified themselves from the arena of integrity in their profession, objectivity in their mission, and humility in their attitude, which determine success in their quest.

In this rat race for attention and superiority, psychologists have denied the "whole" character of man, and focused instead on what they regarded as predominant features in his making and breaking. They made pieces out of his personality, spread them out, and concentrated deeply on each one of the personality traits so much that they have lost the full total picture altogether. They claimed that "the idea was bigger than any one individual, and exceptions proved the rule!". Empathy lost out to statistics; respect lost out to labels; compassion lost out to arrogance; and integrity lost out to zeal.

Thus more often than not, the divisions in psychology have failed humankind. It is very healthy to have a different viewpoint, to do a detailed analysis onto it, and to bring out its merits. But holding on steadfastly to them, without also pointing out to where that point is less than complete, without recognizing the pluses of the efforts of others, is sad and, more importantly, not objective. Objectivity only lends any stream of study its credibility. Only then it can feature a wholesome view as well as giving credit to other possibilities. Recognizing the effectiveness of the self is alright, but this will not distance one from recognizing the contribution of others.

Every theoretical orientation has merits and demerits; adhering steadfastly to 1 particular theory is not the preserve of an intelligent and wise psychologist. It is unprofitable to say minimal, and at the most, that it is dangerous. No theory has proven to be the best in terms of its application in therapy. The various schools of psychotherapy have basic commonalities, which transcend the disparate teaching and treatment approaches. The only way to go up above professional dogmatism and bigotry is to realize this fact and steadfastly apply the principles of humanity in the helping profession.

Counseling hasn't always been such an encompassing and respected profession. It has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, many people, unaware of its evolution, associate all counseling with schools or equate the term guidance with counseling. As a result, old ideas are recognised incorrectly as innovations. C. H. Patterson, a pioneer in counseling, once observed that some writers in counseling journals appear "ignorant of the annals of the counseling profession[and thus] review the same ground covered in the publications of the 1950s and 1960s" (Goodyear & Watkins, 1983, p. 594). An identical criticism could be produced of the general public. Therefore, it is important to examine the annals of counseling because a counselor who is informed about the evolution of the profession is much more likely to make real contributions to the field.

The emergence of counseling as an occupation occurred in two stages over the course of the 20th century, with roughly the first 50 years being truly a role development stage and the last 50 years a profession development stage. History traces the roots of the profession to educational and vocational guidance, mental health movement, and the emergence of psychotherapy. Counseling has originated from many sources. It could be seen to have evolved from psychotherapy; it can be viewed as being born from the mental health movement; and it can owe its roots to the vocational guidance movement.

Evolution from the guidance movement

In america, counseling emerged from the school counseling profession, which started as a vocational guidance movement at the beginning of the 20th century. The conception of the educational guidance movement is usually related to Jesse B. Davis (Father of School Counseling), a principal in the Grand Rapids, Michigan, school system, who instituted weekly guidance lessons in English classes with the goal of building character and stopping problems. He is considered the first ever to give a systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he encouraged the school English teachers to work with compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character, and avoid behavioral problems. In 1908, Frank Parsons (Father of l Guidance) established the Bureau of Vocational Guidance in Boston to aid young people in making the transition from school to work. Parson's framework for vocational guidance could be explained as follows:

Clear understanding of self, aptitudes, abilities, interests, resources, limitations, etc.

Knowledge of requirements and conditions for success: pros and cons; compensations, opportunities, prospects in confirmed type of work

Apply "true reasoning" to realistically evaluate likelihood of successful match.

From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling and guidance grew as a result of rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement saying the movement is antieducational and that schools should only teach the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the fantastic Depression, resulted in a decline in school counseling and guidance. In the 1940s, the United States used psychologists and counselors to select, recruit, and train military personnel. This propelled the counseling movement in schools by providing ways to check students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly. Also, Carl Rogers' focus on the helping relationships during this time period influenced the profession of school counseling. In the 1950s, the federal government established the Guidance and Personnel Services Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I. The American government was nervous that the Russians were claiming superiority over america in the area race, which had military implications. The American government, which became concerned that there have been not enough scientists and mathematicians, established the National Education Act, which spurred an enormous growth in vocational guidance through large amounts of funding. Because the 1960s, the profession of school counseling has continued to grow as new legislation and new professional developments were established to refine and additional the profession and improve education (Schmidt, 2003).

Evolution from the mental health movement

The mental health movement started by Clifford W. Beers had a good influence on guidance and counseling. Beers has often been called the founder of the present day mental health movement. As a guy who had a mental disorder himself and received deplorable treatment, Beers devoted his life to becoming an advocate of adults and children with mental illness in america and across the world. By narrating his experience and subsequently creating the National Mental Health Association, he revolutionized attitudes about and care for people with mental disorders.

He founded the National Mental Health Association in 1909 to improve mental health care and fight discrimination against people with mental illness. To instigate this reform, Beers courageously shared his own experience with mental illness in his autobiography, A Mind That Found Itself. This renowned book opened the country's eyes to the mistreatment of men and women with mental illness and led to the creation of the present day mental health movement.

A pen rather than lance has been my weapon of offence and defence; using its point I will prick the civic conscience and bring into a neglected field women and men who should become champions for those afflicted thousands least able to fight for themselves.

Clifford W. Beers

The famed philosopher Dr. William James, who had been moved by early drafts of the book, wrote the preface. Published in 1908, the book awoke the public to the struggle of men and women with mental illness and the shameful state of mental healthcare in the us. It had an instantaneous impact. and helped spread Beers' vision of an enormous mental health reform movement. It was later translated into several foreign languages and was well received throughout the world.

In same year of his autobiography release, Beers go about creating organizations that would realize his vision for reform. On May 6, 1908, Beers and 13 others met in New Haven, Connecticut, to launch the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiene, the to begin several state societies that could work to improve mental healthcare and reduce stigma.

A year later, recognizing the necessity for a national approach, Beers sought to produce an organization through which "the best ideas in the world may be crystallized and passed along. " In 1909, Beers while others created the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, the precursor to today's National Mental Health Association. The committee's goals were the preservation of mental health, prevention of psychiatric disorders, and improvement of care, amongst others. The organization established the following goals

To improve attitudes toward mental illness and the mentally ill

To improve services for the mentally ill

To benefit preventing mental illness and promote mental health.

The National Committee commenced fulfilling its mission of change immediately, initiating successful reforms in a number of states. In 1920, the Committee produced a couple of model commitment laws, which were subsequently incorporated in to the statutes of several states. The Committee also conducted influential studies on mental health, mental illness, and treatment, prompting real changes in the mental healthcare system.

The year 1921 marked the beginning of the "child guidance" movement. Its goal was to prevent juvenile delinquency through involvement of the kid Guidance Clinics in the lives of the youth. These clinics, rooted in society, cooperated with juvenile judges, schools, and so on. This can be considered as medicalization or a "medical view of crime, " namely that people exhibiting asocial or antisocial behavior is highly recommended as psychiatric patients. Therefore that they are not evil, but ill, and should be treated accordingly without punishment.

With these successes, Beers sought to expand the movement worldwide. In 1930, he organized the First International Congress for Mental Hygiene. The Congress convened more than 3, 000 individuals from 41 countries for constructive dialogue about fulfilling the mission of the mental health movement. This gathering prompted Beers to establish the International Committee for Mental Hygiene the following year, which is now known as the World Federation for Mental Health. Thus Beers changed mental healthcare forever to the benefit of past, current, and future generations of people in the United States and throughout the world.

In 1946 William C. Menninger founded the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. This group promoted the theory that psychiatry shouldn't be concerned only with patients and their treatment, but first and foremost with normal people and social action. Thus mental health gradually began to create problems for the complete nation and society.

In 1947, the WHO defined health as follows: "A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the lack of disease and infirmity. "

The mental hygiene movement, which after 1947 became the mental health movement, has always promoted the theory that mental health is a government responsibility.

Directly from the mental health movement grew community psychiatry. THE CITY Mental Health Centers (CMHCs), intended as centers for psychiatric assistance, consultation, and prevention, were supposed to provide services to as many people as is feasible from all walks of life. These were not only, as it proved later, primarily designed for treating patients but carried the bigger objective of changing society overall and solving various social problems.

The work of lots of clinics led to the recognition of the importance of emotional needs in the process of growth as well by learning and adjustment. The advent of psychoanalysis had a significant effect on psychotherapy. Concerning this time, sociologists were studying different societies and cultures, and had begun to understand the necessity for understanding the social milieu in explaining human behavior. Thus from the middle of the 19th century for this, counseling has evolved through various viewpoints and theories and their respective therapies. At present, we are at a point where in fact the ancient and the recent methodologies are being combined to provide a holistic approach to counseling.

Evolution from psychotherapy

Modern psychotherapy traces its history back again to the work of Sigmund Freud in Vienna in the 1880s. Trained as a neurologist, Freud entered private practice in 1886 and by 1896 had developed a method of dealing with hysterical patients, which he called "psychoanalysis. : Others such as Adler, Snador Ferenczi, Karl Abraham, and Otto Rank were also analyzed by Freud and had brief apprentice-type training from him before becoming psychoanalysts in their own right. In the early 1900s, Ernest Jones and A. A. Bril, from the United Kingdom and United States, respectively, visited Freud in Vienna and returned with their own countries to promote his method. Freud himself commenced his own lecture tour of North America in 1909. Gradually numerous others began to develop their own theories and approaches, which differed markedly from Freud. Jung, who was actually groomed as Freud's intellectual successor, eventually split from him and pursued his own school of analytical psychology drawing heavily on both Freud and Adler's ideas.

A separate strand of psychological therapy developed under the influence of psychology and learning theory and leading thinkers such as B. F. skinner. Rejecting the idea of hidden aspects of the psyche, which can't be examined empirically (such as the unconscious of Freud), practioners in the behavioral tradition commenced to concentrate on what could actually be viewed in the outside world.

Finally, under the influence of Adler and Rank, a "third way" was pioneered by Carl Rogers. The extension of counseling beyond the arenas of vocation and psychotherapy into other areas of human development was given a major boost with the publication of Counseling and Psychotherapy by Rogers in 1942. For the first time, the conditions for both remediating personal problems and facilitating personal development were combined under one rubric. Rogers formally recognized that problems of adjustment in one facet of living had a profound influence on other aspects a proper. He also set forth some core conditions for remediation and promoting development, thereby challenging the long years and rigid standards of training required by psychoanalytic theory to be a realtor for therapeutic change. Originally called client-centered, and later person-centered, Roger's approach centered on the knowledge of the individual, neither adopting elaborate and empirically untestable theoretical constructs nor neglecting the internal world of your client as the early behaviorists did. This theory and philosophy was very widely accepted and led to a significant shift from guidance to counseling as the principal function of counselors.

Other approaches also developed under what had become known as the humanistic branch of psychotherapy, including Gestalt remedy and the psychodrama of J. L. Moreno.

Spotlight on need for indigenous types of counseling

Multicultural counseling

Multicultural counseling started gaining increasing importance before few decades in the United States. As psychologists started realizing that the population of the United States was becoming more and more diverse and all of the major theoretical approaches to counseling were produced by Europeans (Freud, Jung, Adler, and Pearls) or Americans of European descent (Rogers, Skinner, Ellis, etc. ). The counseling profession appeared to be basically a product of the European American culture (Das, 1995). Thus understanding the complex social and cultural background of each client began to be regarded as vital to successful counseling.

Because of the dramatic increases of culturally diverse individuals in various parts of the world, indigenous perspectives of healing must be understood in the context of interdependent cultural practices.

In order to become competent in multicultural counseling, one will need to have a clear notion of what's culture, how it is affecting the client's thoughts and behavior, and what's typical of his or her cultural group. The client's behavior may then be evaluated as it comes even close to how others in his / her group would typically behave. An abnormal behavior in a single culture may be adaptive in another. Culture includes language, customs, values, beliefs, spirituality, religion, roles of women and men in society, and sociopolitical history. It's important to counseling in lots of ways.

Since 1995, multicultural and diversity training has spread widely throughout industry and every level of the training system in the United States (Kiselica & Ramsey, 2001). Inside the mental health profession, an evergrowing awareness that counseling is, to some extent, multicultural contributed to the emergence and refinement of numerous models of cultural identity development, frameworks for multicultural counseling and training, and instruments to assess multicultural constructs (Kiselica & Ramsey, 2001). But the counseling literature typically has a solid scholarly foundation and provides useful practical information for clinicians, they have failed historically to capture the profound human encounters that occur in counseling, particularly those associated with crossing cultural boundaries (Kiselica, 1999c). Derald Wing Sue (1992) noted that fully comprehending complex concepts such as racism requires an affective, as well as an intellectual, understanding on the part of counselors.

Competency in multicultural counseling refers to counselors' attitudes/ beliefs, knowledge, and skills in working with people from various cultural groups (Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992). One aspect of demonstrated multicultural counseling competence is the capability to identify and integrate cultural factors into conceptualizations of the etiology and treatment of clients' presenting concerns (i. e. , multicultural case conceptualization ability). Conceptualizing clients from a multicultural perspective indicates that counselor trainees know about and can integrate information about various cultural factors into clients' presenting issues and, subsequently, identify an appropriate treatment for working with clients based on this information (Constantine & Ladany, 2000). Multicultural case conceptualization ability is made up of two distinct, but interrelated, dimensions. The first factor or conceptualization is based on recognition of factors that may be contributing to the etiology of students' problems by counselor trainees. The second conceptualization is based on their thoughts in what might be a powerful treatment focus or arrange for addressing clients' difficulties. These conceptualizations may become increasingly complex as counselor trainees make associations between and among hypothesized etiologies of presenting concerns and, accordingly, integrate these data into treatment plans (Constantine & Gushue, in press). Counselor trainees' ability to perceive and conceptualize cultural information in a complex and sophisticated manner could have important implications for his or her ability to work well with culturally diverse students. Hence, receiving multicultural supervision presumably would affect these trainees' multicultural case conceptualization ability.

Three major dimensions in multicultural counseling will be the counselor's own culture, attitudes, and theoretical perspective; the client's culture; and the multiplicity of variables comprising a person's identity (Pedersen, 1986).

The counselor's culture (Bolton-Brownlee & Ann, 1987)

A major assumption for culturally effective counseling and psychotherapy is that people can acknowledge our own basic tendencies, the ways we comprehend other cultures, and the limits our culture places on our comprehension. It is vital to understand our own cultural heritage and world view before we set about understanding and assisting other people (Ibrahim, 1985; Lauver, 1986). This understanding includes an awareness of one's own philosophies of life and capabilities, recognition of different structures of reasoning, and an understanding of their effects on one's communication and helping style (Ibrahim, 1985). Insufficient such understanding may hinder effective intervention (McKenzie, 1986).

Adherence to a particular counseling theory or method may also limit the success of counseling. Many cultural groups do not share the values implied by the methods and so do not share the counselor's expectations for the conduct or outcome of the counseling session. To counter these differences, effective counselors must investigate their clients' cultural background and be open to flexible definitions of "appropriate" or "correct" behavior (LaFromboise, 1985).

Another counseling barrier is language. Language dissimilarities may be perhaps the most crucial stumbling block to effective multicultural counseling and assessment (Romero, 1985). Language barriers impede the counseling process when clients cannot express the complexity with their thoughts and feelings or resist discussing affectively charged issues. Counselors too could become annoyed by their lack of bilingual ability. With the worst, language barriers may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate placement (Romero, 1985).

The client's culture (Bolton-Brownlee & Ann, 1987)

As counselors incorporate a greater knowing of their clients' culture into their theory and practice, they must realize that, historically, cultural variations have been seen as deficits (Romero, 1985). Multicultural counseling, however, seeks to rectify this imbalance by acknowledging cultural diversity, appreciating the worthiness of the culture, and utilizing it to aid your client. Although the variety of cultures is vast, the following examples

Individual distinctions (Bolton-Brownlee & Ann, 1987)

There is often the danger of stereotyping clients and of confusing other influences, especially race and socioeconomic status, with cultural influences. The best evident danger in counseling is to oversimplify the client's social system by emphasizing the most evident aspects of their background (Pedersen, 1986). While universal categories are essential to comprehend human experience, losing sight of specific individual factors would lead to ethical violations (Ibrahim, 1985). Individual clients are influenced by race, ethnicity, national origin, life stage, educational level, social class, and sex roles (Ibrahim, 1985). Counselors must view the identity and development of culturally diverse people in conditions of multiple, interactive factors, rather than a strictly cultural framework (Romero, 1985). A pluralistic counselor considers all areas of the client's personal history, genealogy, and social and cultural orientation (Arcinega & Newlou, 1981).

One of the most crucial dissimilarities for multicultural counseling is the difference between race and culture. Differences exist among racial groups as well as within each group.

Although it is impossible to change backgrounds, pluralistic counselors can avoid the problems of stereotyping and false expectations by examining their own values and norms, researching their clients' backgrounds, and finding counseling solutions to suit the clients' needs. Counselors cannot adopt their clients' ethnicity or cultural heritage, however they can become more sensitive to these exact things and also to their own and their clients' biases. Clinical sensitivity toward client expectation, attributions, values, roles, beliefs, and themes of coping and vulnerability is always essential for effective outcomes (LaFromboise, 1985). Three questions that counselors might use within assessing their approach are as follows (Jereb, 1982): (1) within what framework or context may i understand why client (assessment)? (2) Within what context do client and counselor know what change in functioning is desirable (goal)? (3) What techniques can be used to effect the required change (intervention)? Examination of their own assumptions, acceptance of the multiplicity of variables that constitute an individual's identity, and development of a client-centered, balanced counseling method will aid the multicultural counselor in providing effective help.


Counseling is becoming more relevant in the current context than it was a good few years ago. Folks are experiencing more discomfort and anxiety. The ways and ethics of family, society, community, and work are changing drastically. Today's adjustment needs to be redefined tomorrow. Such a situation has, to state the least, spread panic among people. People are scrambling to get a variety of help, from the age-old wisdom of the scriptures to modern day counseling.

Counseling catalyzes personal and interpersonal functioning over the life span. It deals with the complete gamut of emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns, encompassing a broad selection of practices that help people improve their wellness, assuage distress and alleviate maladjustment, resolve crises, and augment one's ability to reside in effectively functioning lives. Throughout the integration of theory, research, and practice, and with sensitivity to multicultural issues, counseling successfully helps someone to understand and solve a life problem.

The evolution of counseling can be seen from three perspectives

As descended from psychotherapy.

As descended from the guidance movement.

As descended from the mental health movement.

The discussion of counseling cannot be complete without alerting the students to the actual fact that cultural and social backgrounds of both the counselor and the counselee have a profound influence on the counseling process. The counselor must be sensitive to the average person dissimilarities as well as be familiar with his / her own affiliations and attitudes. Thus in the multicultural, multiracial, multiethnic world, multicultural competency is a must for any counselor.

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The client then makes choices and decisions

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"There is no solution in sight"¶"

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, including long-term care, AIDS, cancer, etc

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Mental illness (e¶)

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This, combined with the financial hardship of the fantastic Depression, resulted in a decline in school counseling and guidance

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In the 1950s, the federal government established the Guidance and Personnel Services Section in the Division of State and Local School Systems

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A pen rather than lance has been my weapon of offence and defence; using its point I should prick the civic conscience and bring into a neglected field men and women who should become champions for those afflicted thousands least able to fight for themselves

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It had an immediate impact

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Menninger founded the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry

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This group promoted the theory that psychiatry should not be concerned only with patients and their treatment, but first and foremost with normal people and social action

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In 1947, the WHO defined health as follows: "A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

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Trained as a neurologist, Freud entered private practice in 1886 and by 1896 had developed a method of dealing with hysterical patients, which he called "psychoanalysis

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Counselors too may become annoyed by their insufficient bilingual ability

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Multicultural counseling, however, seeks to rectify this imbalance by acknowledging cultural diversity, appreciating the worthiness of the culture, and deploying it to assist the client

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