The concept of mental development of the child DB Elkonin
This paragraph is a transitional link to the next topic of our manual. DB El'konin's generalized theory of mental development is something between the empirical periodization, formed on the basis of real life experience, and the periodization of the theoretical, potentially possible under ideal conditions for the education and upbringing of children.
The period from birth to graduation Elkonin divided into six stages.
1. Infancy: from birth to 1 year of life.
2. Early childhood: from 1 year of life to 3 years.
3. Preschool age: from 3 to 6-7 years.
4. Junior school age: from 6-7 to 10-11 years.
5. Adolescence: 10-11 to 14-15 years.
6. Early adolescence: from 14-15 to 16-17 years.
Each period of development has its own characteristics and boundaries, which can be seen when watching a child. In every psychological age it is necessary to apply special methods and methods of teaching and education, build communication with the child, taking into account its age features. All age periods are accompanied by the development of interpersonal communication, aimed mainly at personal and intellectual development, characterized by the formation of knowledge, skills and skills, the implementation of the operational and technical capabilities of the child.
The transition from one stage of development to another occurs in situations of age-related crises, i.e. if there is a discrepancy between the level of personal development achieved and the child's operational and technical capabilities.
The personal development of children is carried out through the reproduction and modeling of the interpersonal relations of adults and the qualities of the personality manifested in them, as well as in the process of communication of the child with other children during the story-role games. Here he is faced with the need to master new subject actions, without which it is difficult to be understood by peers and to look more adult.
The development process begins in infancy with the fact that the child begins to recognize the parents and revitalize when they appear. This is how the child communicates with the adult.
At the beginning of an early age, objects are manipulated and practical, sensorimotor intelligence begins to form. At the same time, there is an intensive development of verbal (speech) communication. The child uses speech to establish contact and cooperation with others, but not as a tool of thinking.
Objective actions serve as a way to establish interpersonal contacts.
At preschool age, a role-playing game becomes a leading role in which the child models relationships between people, as if fulfilling their social roles, copying the behavior of adults. In the process of role-playing the personal development of the child is taking place, it takes possession of the objective activity and the initial skills of communication.
In primary school age, the main activity is learning, as a result of which intellectual and cognitive abilities are formed. Through the teaching, the entire system of child's relationships with adults is built.
In adolescence, labor activity and an intimate-personal form of communication arise and develop. Labor activity consists in the appearance of a joint passion for something. Teenagers start to think about the future profession. Communication at this age comes to the fore and is built on the basis of the so-called partnership code. Company Code includes a case
and personal relationships, similar to those that are available for adults.
In the older school age, the processes of adolescence continue to develop, but the intimate-personal communication becomes the leading one. In addition, as a leading educational activity begins to act. High school students begin to reflect on the meaning of life, their position in society, professional and personal self-determination.
In the next topic, we will take a closer look at the most well-known periodizations of human development.
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