The crisis of seven years and the problem of readiness for schooling
According to Vygotsky, the most significant feature of the crisis of seven years could be called "the beginning of the differentiation of the inner and the outer side of the child's personality." At the age of seven, the child reveals the very fact of his experiences, because there is a big difference between a sense of hunger and the realization that one is hungry. For a crisis of a given age, it is characteristic that experiences acquire meaning (an angry child understands that he is angry), because of this the child has such new relationships to himself that were impossible before the generalization of experiences. Like on a chessboard, when completely new connections arise between each figure, there are also completely new links between experiences when they acquire a certain meaning. Consequently, the entire character of the child's experiences by the age of seven is rebuilt.
For the crisis of seven years, generalization of experiences , or affective generalization, the logic of feelings first occurs: if a child has had a situation many times, he has an affective education, whose character also refers to a single experience, as the concept refers to a single perception or recollection.
A pre-school child does not have a real self-esteem, self-esteem. He loves himself, but self-esteem as a generalized attitude to himself, which remains the same in different situations, self-esteem as such, generalized relations to others and an understanding of his value in a child of this age does not exist (Vygotsky).
In the crisis of seven years, due to the fact that there is a differentiation of the internal and external, which first creates a sense experience, there is an acute struggle of experiences . A child who does not know which sweets to take - more or more sently, is not in a state of internal struggle, although he hesitates. Internal struggle only arises when two different experiences collide: the immediate urge to take candy and the social motive to comply with the rule, do not break promises. According to LS Vygotsky, only where the child first understands his experiences, an inner relation develops, without which school age would not be possible.
L. F. Obukhova identifies the following symptoms of the crisis of seven years :
1) loss of immediacy - between desire and action, the experience of what value this action will have for the child is wedged in;
2) manners - the child "is building something", something is hiding (already the soul is closed);
3) the symptom of the "bitter candy" - the child is ill, but he tries not to show it;
4) there are difficulties of education - the child begins to become isolated and becomes uncontrollable.
These symptoms are based on the generalization of experiences. The emergence of inner life is an extremely important fact: now the orientation of behavior will be realized within the subject itself.
L. F. Obukhova defines the neo-education crisis of seven years as wedging between the desire to do something and the very activity of the child the moment of orientation in what will bring him the implementation of a particular activity. This is an internal orientation in what sense the activity can have for a child: satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the place that the child will take in relations with adults or other people. Here, for the first time, the emotional-semantic orienting basis of the action arises: "No learning is possible until the thought of the teacher becomes the subject of the child's reasoning." According to DB Elkonin's views, the child passes into a new age precisely there and then, where and when the orientation of the meaning of the action appears.
The subordination of motives that emerged in preschool age then becomes relatively stable and is transferred to the internal plan. The struggle of the ethical norm and direct desire, which the younger preschooler can easily see from the outside, becomes internal. Noted by many researchers "decline" role-playing game (curtailing the role itself and coming to the forefront of the rules), reducing the expressiveness of the child's drawing and many similar changes are caused precisely by going into the orienting part of the action, increasing the orientation to the final result, the very loss of immediacy.
To. N. Polivanova believes that the main symptoms of the crisis of seven years are grouped around the child's response to the directions or requirements of the adult, and singles out the following forms of behavior of children:
• pause - child "does not hear" addressed to him the words of an adult, he delays the moment the action is performed. Usually this applies to the most common activities, regime moments (washing hands before eating, brushing your teeth before going to bed, etc.);
• Dispute - in response to a request, the child begins to challenge the need to perform this action or the time of its execution (refers to the behavior of other family members or to their own employment);
• disobedience - failure to comply with the usual requirements or regulations, contrasting their deeds or intentions with the requirements of parents. Disobedience can arise without challenging the demand, without expressing disagreement, but then it turns out that the demand or even the promise is not fulfilled. In response to the claims of the parents or in order to avoid them, cunning can develop. Sometimes disobedience is demonstrative, it often appears with grandparents, brothers and sisters and only then with parents;
• cunning has, as a rule, a game character, without turning into malicious forms of avoiding punishment or hiding the truth. For example, instead of washing your hands, the child enters the bathroom, spends some time there and goes back. Being "convicted", calmly goes to wash his hands;
• adult behavior , a particular kind of manners, is of two types - reasonableness and adulthood. Both are aspirations for an adult in form behavior, in contrast to the actual adulthood, expressed in independent occupations, and the desire for independence;
• self-employment. At the beginning of the seventh year of life there is a desire for productive activity, gradually replacing the game in time. Characteristic value obtained in these studies result. There is a rejection of previously habitual types of productive activity (often drawing). A new type of activity is valuable in itself as a result of one's own efforts, an independently chosen type of work. However, when criticized by the adults of this result, a sharply negative reaction is possible;
• general questions indicate the development of the cognitive interests of the child. They go beyond specific situations and can relate to both life on other planets, and the place of the child in the extended family, moral and ethical issues, the origin of life, and the like.
• independence - the desire to do something new, adult and at the same time refusal to do something that parents asked about.
By the end of the preschool age, three lines of development are distinguished: the formation of arbitrary behavior, the mastery of the means and standards of cognitive activity, the transition from egocentrism to decentration (LF Obukhov). These lines, as well as motivational indicators, determine the child's psychological readiness for schooling .
• On the line of formation of arbitrary behavior determine volitional readiness, the level of development of decentration - intellectual readiness, which also includes the level of development of individual thought operations.
• An important type of psychological readiness for school is always recognized as the so-called motivational readiness which most often refers to the desire and aspiration of the child for schooling. It is known that many preschoolers dream of going to school only because for them the schoolchild's role is a more adult social position. They seek to occupy precisely this social position, and for them an important role is played by the external attributes of the role (form, portfolio, pencil case, etc.). However, in this case we are dealing with motives that are external to the learning activity, which, accordingly, will not be able to be sufficiently effective for a long time.
Some researchers consider the development of cognitive motives to be the most essential part of motivational readiness. However, the realization of cognitive motives can successfully take place outside the school and, on the contrary, it is absent in school activity, if only because the teacher does not have The ability to constantly offer every child something new for him. Thus, the development of cognitive motives in a child does not always guarantee its success in school education.
Along with motivational readiness, sometimes personal readiness, i.e. readiness of the child for business communication and cooperation. In our opinion, the possibility of business communication appears only in a child who has been in crisis for seven years, i.e. overcoming its own immediacy.
• Sometimes the operational-technical readiness for the school, is singled out, which primarily includes the ability to arbitrarily control one's behavior. This includes the development of the motor sphere, including articulation and fine motor skills. To this type of readiness is attributed and the formation of the simplest logical operations in the child.
• In the field of mastering the means and standards of cognitive activity, great importance is attached to the availability of certain knowledge and skills in the child. At present, this knowledge of letters (sometimes even the ability to read), the ability to count from 1 to 10 and back, and the like.
But whatever types of readiness are allocated, it is indisputable that for systematic schooling the child's ability to arbitrarily control his own behavior, the formation of his basic logical operations, the ability to communicate with an adult, the availability of certain knowledge about the world around him .
Thanks to the developed speech, the preschooler psychologically goes beyond the context of his specific situation, he is interested in the hidden causes of phenomena and social relations. Realizing himself as a subject, he seeks to participate in the social life of adults. Since the child's possibilities for such participation are very limited, the preschooler addresses (with the help of adults) to modeling activities: plot-role play, visual activity, listening to fairy tales, etc. The leading activity of the preschool child is the role-play game. All of the above activities of the preschool child contribute to his cognitive and personal development: overcoming cognitive egocentrism, forming sensory standards, developing arbitrariness and subjectivity of behavior.
Thanks to the expansion of the child's connections with the world and his exit beyond a specific visual situation, the preschooler acquires ideas about the world as a whole, about its structure. You can say that he has his own worldview. By the end of preschool childhood, the child also has personal consciousness , i.e. awareness of their place in the system of relations with adults. For the first time at this age, there is a "subordination of various motives, ie. occurs, in the words of AN Leontiev, the first birth of a person.
In the crisis of seven years, children's immediacy is lost, and the child begins to focus on the meaning of the action or action, on his social assessment. Comprehending the difference between the external and the internal, the child acquires the ability to control his impulses and not all of them realize in external behavior. This loss of childish immediacy makes him capable of business communication, which is the basis of readiness for schooling, along with the development of arbitrariness of behavior, the formation of logical logical operations and the expansion of ideas about the world.
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