The crisis of three years
By three years the child has a desire to act at his own discretion in spite of the situation and the proposed adult, which leads to the "crisis of social relations" (LS Vygotsky). Symptoms of the crisis of three years were first described by the famous German psychologist Elsa Kohler. Among them are the main ones:
1) negativism - a negative reaction, expressed in refusal to obey certain requirements of adults. The child does not do anything just because it was suggested to him by a certain adult person. The main motive for action is to do the opposite, i.e. just the opposite of what he was told;
2) the child insists on his decision, and not because he really wants it, but because he himself said this to adults and demands that his opinion be considered;
3) obstinacy, which is not directed against a specific adult, but against the entire established system of relations accepted in the house of order and norms;
4) self-will as a tendency to independence - the child wants to do everything and decide for himself. The desire and desire to act independently are often inadequate to the child's capabilities, so parents resist reactions "I myself!", Which causes additional conflicts with adults.
Secondary manifestations of the crisis:
• impairment of adults, expressed in a negative attitude to close adults, primarily to parents ( and you are bad "," I will not be friends with you "," fool "and etc.);
• protest riot, which manifests itself in regular conflicts, frequent quarrels with parents, when children seem to be at war with adults. The behavior of the child is of a protesting nature;
• Despotism, expressed in the desire to exercise power in relation to loved ones, dictating, for example, what he will eat, and what will not, can mother leave home or not, etc.
All these phenomena indicate that the child's attitude towards other people and himself changes: the child is separated psychologically from close adults, he has a desire to manifest his "I", which he can realize only by opposing himself to an adult person.
To. N. Polivanova believes that the specific character of the crisis of three years, unlike the one-year crisis, is the active nature of the child's behavior. A one-year-old child does not initially protest, does not resist an adult (a protest arises in response to the adult's ban, the side of the adult leads to the extinction of affect). In a three-year-old child, the protest is the starting point of negativism, he resists, no matter how the adult behaves (the concession does not remove the affective attitude to the situation, but only leads to a change in the object of discontent). In addition, in a three-year situation, negativism arises in a verbal form: "I do not want ...", "I myself!", The child seems to be looking for content to these words.
According to DB Elkonin, the basic new growths of early childhood, taking shape in three years, are personal action and consciousness I myself. " At an early age, a child builds its action on the model of the adult's actions, its action is woven into the situation of joint activity with the adult, but by the age of three the child opens his action as personal, there is a desire to act at his own discretion, contrary to the situation, the desires of adults and even against his own good. >
Basic new growths of early childhood - structural and systemic structure of consciousness (Vygotsky), manifested in the formation of connections between individual functions and in the development of generalization as a unit of consciousness in general; mastery of objective actions, symbolic (replacing) actions, the initial stage of the formation of sensory qualities, visual-efficient thinking, active speech, the formation of rudiments of strong-willed qualities; appearance of the categorical I & quot ;. The main neoplasm that occurs at the end of early childhood is the phenomenon of "I myself" and personal action, due to which the child has a desire to act himself and in the same way as adults (DB Elkonin).
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