The eight Stages of Development

Article: "A Personality Measure of Erikson´s Life Periods: The Inventory of Psychosocial Balance"

Source: Journal of Personal Analysis, 1990

Summary:

Theses article handles all the eight Erikson´s psychosocial levels. A pool of 208 items that survived a professional medical analysis was implemented to 528 topics and then factor examined. It targets life-span development. For this reason fact, the analysis information on the development and initial validation of an instrument, the Inventory of psychosocial balance (IPB). It had been designed to evaluate all eight levels, with a primary focus on its implementation to adult content. The method comprises a level development, themes and a factor analysis. The analysis of Ericson`s eight phases resulted in a short pool of 346 items, written to reflect both negative and positive areas of the eight stages. Each item was five-point Likert response format which range from "strongly agree" (1) to "strongly disagree" (5). Furthermore the pool was implemented to 528 themes. The sample was quite heterogeneous. The respondent was required to rate 0%-100% size, how successfully they had achieved each of 19 life problems for example successful person, trusting other folks or adoring someone etc. The 528 IPB protocols were published to a factor analysis using a principal aspect and a correlational evaluation with self-ratings of life issues. The factor analysis eight significant factors related to the eight level: trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, personality, intimacy, generativity and ego integrity. The total variance accounted for by the eight factors is 72, 34 %, with the trust factor having the largest ratio of variance (17, 46%) and the Ego Integrity factor getting the smallest (5, 47%).

The evidence shown shows that the IPB is an psychometrically reliable and valid device to analyze life-span to approach personality development. The IPB shows adaptive selection of subjects, from school age children to elderly and its own trustworthiness and validity look reasonable. The IPB represents a vertical translation of Erikson`s psychosocial levels.

2. Article: "Psychology Development and Friendship Functions in Adolescence"

Source: Sex Functions, Vol. 25

Summary:

The articles is approximately the relationship between friendship variables and adolescent psychosocial development, specifically identity and psychosocial intimacy as centered by Erikson.

This research includes intimacy differences. Erikson somewhat did not explicitly postulate differentepigenetic charts for men and women, nor performed he suggest different procedures for males and females in conditions of movements through the experiences of "turmoil" and "determination" at each level of development. The purpose of today's research was to investigate different varieties of identification and intimacy development through exam (a) of whether the sexes differed in their comparative proportions across these different styles, and (b) whether specific a friendly relationship values and characteristics were associated with the various styles. The styles were identified by establishing four groups predicated on high and low credit scoring on the identity and intimacy methods used. Actually, friendship patterns are likely to be relevant to both identification and intimacy creation, although their meanings and importance may vary for males and females. One hypothesis analyzed in the present research, therefore, was that females and guys would be unequally allocated across developmental style, with relatively more males choosing the High Id road tomaturity and relatively more females the High Intimacy style. In contrast to this hypothesis the study shows that there were no differences between the sexes in their selection of developmental style. But those in the high-identity-high-intimacy and the high-identity-low-intimacy communities were more satisfied with their friendships, which made an appearance affectively richer. Furthermore the companionship during adolescence and youthhas an unique and important impact in the life of the average person. The research appears that we now have distinctions between same- and opposite-sex friendships. Sex differences revealed that while friendship parameters were more strongly chained with development for boys, girls viewed their associations as closer and imputed more importance to this closeness. The technique is composed of an example of secondary university students and college or university students. Subject matter were attracted from two supplementary colleges and two universities, each ofthese companies portion students from middle to lessen middle income areas. The attendant were asked "friendship questions", that have been divided in four parts: Section A--Demographic factors; Section B--Intimacy and Identity scales; Section C--General camaraderie information; Section D-Specific best ally information. The full total questionnaire had taken about 30 minutes to complete. For instance in section B, the personality and intimacy measures implemented were subscales of the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. The EPSI is a self-report inventory that steps resolution of the issues associated with the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages. Items are scored on the 5-point scale ranging from almost always true to seldom true.

In order to research the interactions between two units of companionship factors (Basic factors and Specific Close Camaraderie (Same Love-making)) and other factors of matter, factor scores on eachfactor were computed, using the regression method. To conclude friendship and affectionate human relationships developed with psychosocial maturity, separately (as far as can be judged by this research), but not as alternatives.

3. Article: "Generativity Versus Stagnation: An Elaboration of Erikson's Adult Level of Man Development"

Source: Journal of Adult Development, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2003

Summary:

This research focuses on the adult level of generativity vs. stagnation by Erikson`s psychosocial development. The research offers new concepts which are associated to Erikson's theory of development in the form of 7 psychosocial issues. The stage of generativity versus stagnation presents the major turmoil of adulthood. The study starts off with an Eriksonian viewpoint, and then, makes changes to dispute for a competing conception, which could be comprehended within Erikson's original proposal and placed within the developmental chart. The research appears a tentative reason of how each major level of development needs form during adulthood looked after shows the feeling of how these issues fill out Erikson's theory. 7 psychosocial issues are examined: inclusivity vs. exclusivity, pride vs. shame, responsibility vs. ambivalence, career efficiency vs. inadequacy, parenthood vs. self-absorption, being needed vs. alienation, and credibility vs. denial. Each discord is connected to one of Erikson's other periods of development. The analyze make an effort to expand Ericson`s 7 issues. To conclude the conflicts could be identified empirically and validated by attaching them with other measures of ego development and generativity. The conflicts and crises of adulthood could be made more clear and at the same time more complex utilizing the humanities to acquire and illustrate the effects of each conflict. Gleam need to connect these ideas with background and broader societal issues.

4. Article: "Development and Validation of your Way of measuring Eriksonian Industry"

Source: Journal of Personality and Social Mindset, 1991, 'Col. 60, No. 3, 390-397

Summary:

This review place emphasis on the fourth stage of Erikson`s psychosocial development: industry-inferiority. Operationalization of the industry build was begun by talking about it as comprising three components: skills and knowledge, their software, and affective connection with their acquisition and application in useful guidelines. These components course the cognitive (Element 1: skills and knowledge), behavioral (Component 2: Request of Skills and Knowledge) and affective domains (Aspect 3: Behaviour Toward and Connection with the Acquisition and Request of Skills and Knowledge).

The process of demonstrating predictive validity for the current strategy, a step on the way to establishing build validity for the concept of industry, contains several procedures. The first included deciding the conceptual validity of the existing classification of industry by correlating each componentscore both with each other and with the overall mean industry score. Second, children's own industry results were correlated with those provided by two types of observers, professors and parents. Third, seven factors were selected to be able to evaluate the predictive validity of the new industry strategy. Three of the were behavioral and four were based on test responses. The first behavioral solution for example engaged observation of classroom tendencies, that is, on-task versus off-task performance. Four other variables were made by items embedded in the Children's Industry questionnaire (CIQ) and were based on Erikson's theoretical descriptions of correlates to a sense of industry.

The final subject pool of the research consisted of 187 pupils from eight classrooms in three public elementary schools. There have been 101 males (54%) and 86 girls (46%). This range was 8. 6-12. 8 years. The CIQ as a solution contains 47 items evaluating the three the different parts of the industry build and 22 items measuring the expected correlates of industry. Three response settings were used in combination with the CIQ. The most common form (54 items) was the "structured option format" developed by Harter (1982). The kid is asked first to decide which kind of child they're possib by choosing the kid explained on the left or right. Once the choice is manufactured, the child is required to decide the scope to which the description holds true for him or her on a size ranging from 1 to 4--that is, type of true or really true, therefore forth--a score of just one 1 indicating the low levels of the industry construct.

The second response mode on the CIQ was multiple choice. The 3rd CIQ response mode was open-ended questions. Furthermore there were used a Educator Industry questionnaire (TIQ) and a Parent or guardian Industry questionnaire (PIQ).

In bottom line current findings are generally supportive of today's definition of industry and this measure of it. Significant arrangement between different types of observers, making observations in several various ways, and the industry measure was constantly obtained. Results of today's study provide a solid starting to the process of validating the build of industry.

5. Article: "Psychosocial development in older people: A study into Erikson's ninth level"

Author: Cynthia Brown, Michael J. Lowis

Department of Mindset, University School Northampton, Playground Campus, Northampton,

England.

Source: Journal of Ageing Studies 17 (2003) 415-426

Summary:

In their article "Psychosocial development in the elderly: A study into Erikson's ninth stage" the authors Brown and Lowis want to determine the exist of your ninth stage regarding to Joan Erikson's recommendation. Because of an increasing volume of old people especially in developed countries like Germany or Japan it is necessary to execute a research about this. In the end an older culture provide new needs, reevaluations and daily challenges. Even Erik Erikson observed personality as a lifelong developmental process but his theory ends with the eight level ego integrity versus despair at age 65. For their research the writers used a self-report survey with individuals either completing questionnaires themselves or being helped to do so through finished question interviews. The responses were suitable for coding and following quantitative research. Additional qualitative data were obtained through available questions.

As an outcome they discovered that the Stage 9 scores for participants aged in their 80s/90s are significantly greater than for those aged in their 60s, but there is no factor between Level 8 results for both age groups. But these results can only be generalized to a wider human population when they are validated by additional research: the present participants did accept a variety of age range, locations, and living arrangements, but comprised females only, and numbered just 70 individuals altogether. Nevertheless the writers produced a musical instrument that has reliably measured a changing that extends to its ascendancy at an age beyond that normally ascribed to the developmental stage of ego integrity versus despair. And if confirmed, the living of a Stage 9 would suggest that humans remain in a predicament of potential mental expansion throughout their life time.

6. Article: "Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Job Development"

Author: Patrick H. Munley, Veterans Administration Medical center, Lyons, New, Jersey

Source: Journal of Vocational Habit 10, 261-269 (1977)

Summary:

In this post the author results out a few of the efforts of Erik Erikson's theory of the eight phases of development in providing a developmental perspective on career habit. First he identifies Erikson's Theory of the eight life periods. In his opinion the introduction of basic senses of effort, industry, personal information, generativity, and integrity all

seem to be especially relevant to career development patterns. The theory offers a framework for integrating career development with overall individuals development. Furthermore Erikson's theory recognizes the role of communal and cultural factors in romance to life routine development and provides a theoretical construction for integrating research findings on the sociology of job behavior that was already shown by several researches. Another contribution of Erikson's theory is that of the personality crisis and ego individuality. Making a vocational choice or dedication is usually the first important decision marking the move from adolescence to adulthood. That's the reason why one of the major jobs through which identity concerns are indicated in adolescence is the process of making a vocational choice. For example Someone who is undecided in terms of career might not exactly you need to be undecided in regards to a vocation. He might maintain the midst of a standard identity crisis. On the other side someone who has a feeling of ego identity is probably more in a position to make appropriate vocational decisions and options.

At the finish the author concluded that from both a theoretical and empirical viewpoint, Erikson's theory seems to provide a promising perspective for viewing career development. He said that The theory offers a framework for integrating profession development with overall human being development and makes a contribution toward offering a point of view for integrating communal factors and personality development with job development.

7. Article: "The HEALING PROCESS Utilizing Erikson's Periods of Individuals Development"

Author: Suzanne E. Vogel-Scibilia, Kathryn Cohan McNulty, Beth Baxter, Steve Miller, Max Dine, Frederick J. Frese III

Source: Community Ment Health J (2009) 45:405-414

Summary:

The authors give you a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson's theory of human being development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these important steps. They included all the next fundamental the different parts of recovery which were identified by america Department of Health insurance and People Services (2005) into this developmental model: self-direction, individualized and person-centered, empowerment, alternative, non-linear, strength-based, peer-support, esteem, responsibility and anticipation. In the eyes of the authors this develops an understandable, functional framework which allows transformation of traditional programs and restorative associates into recovery-oriented services. The creators propose eight opportunities to resolve turmoil in the service of personal expansion and development, which parallels Erikson's eight stages. The eight levels are: Trust versus Hesitation, Hope versus Shame, Empowerment versus Guilt, Action versus Inaction, New self versus Ill do it yourself, Intimacy versus Isolation, Goal versus Passivity Generativity and Integrity versus Despair. Based on these eight phases and on Erikson's stages of development they clarify and compare the different recovery levels regarding to the healing process of individuals.

8. Article: Personality Status Theory and Erikson's Theory: Communalities and Differences

Author: Alan S. Waierman, Trenton Talk about College

Source: Developmental Review 8, 185-208 (1988)

Summary:

In this informative article the author put together the critique of Côté and Levine on the personal information status theory developed by Wayne Marcia and he compares the idea with Erikson's theory of the eight phases of development. Marcia's theory provides four claims: Personality Diffusion (the status where the adolescent does not have a sense of experiencing choices), Identity Foreclosures (the status where the adolescent seems willing to invest in some relevant roles, prices, or goals for future years), Personality Moratorium (the status where the adolescent happens to be in an emergency, exploring various commitments and is preparing to make choices) and Personal information Achievement (the status where adolescent has gone through a id turmoil and has made a committed action to a feeling of individuality), which differ in a few important respects from that used by Erikson.

The author says that there is basic agreement regarding the construct of individuality itself.

Erikson, Marcia and other writers using the identification status paradigm are grasping for the same happening. Furthermore they are the same opinion regarding to the domains within an individual's life that provide the framework within which someone's sense of id is formed. These include vocational choice, spiritual beliefs, political ideology, sex-role behaviour, and spousal and parenting tasks. These are only two communalities of seven that your author boasts. But there's also differences between these two theories. First he says that there surely is a wide divergence between Erikson and the id position theorists using the identity status paradigm, regarding the viability and tool of the psychoanalytic platform within which the construct of ego identity was formerly developed. The next difference would be that the identity status paradigm explicitly addresses the more conscious aspects of the task of identity formation which relates to the rejection of psychoanalytic theory by many identity position theorists and analysts and as opposed to Erikson. You can find five more differences which the creator figures out in his article. And the finish of his article he gives a forecast on personality research.

9. Article : Personality Theories - Erik Erikson

Author : Dr. C George Boeree From Shippensburg University

Source : Original E-Text-Site: [ http://www. ship. edu/%7Ecgboeree/perscontents. html ]

Summary :

Oglala Lagota, On the list of Oglala Lagota, it was traditional for an young teenage or adolescent to go off on his own. Everybody got a dream, you have a goal and I got a dreams. In a few case, the wish would lead us in to the realm of controlled deviations among the everybody. Eight says begin from infancy on the oral sensory state, the second is the anal muscular level, third talk about is genital-locomotor stage or play years, fourth state is the latency stage or school era child from 6-12, five state is adolescence. Its you start with puverty and finishing around 18 for twenty years old, six I don't know what stage name, copy writer not offering it. Which lasts from about 18 to about 30. The age range in the adult stage are mush fuzzier than in the child years stages. And folks may differ substantially. 7 level is that of middle adulthood. The center life turmoil, if you success at this time, you'll have a capacity for carring that serve you through the rest you will ever have. Reffered to delicalely as overdue adulthood or maturity, or less delicately as old ages of last level, starts sometimes around you old age after the kids have removed say somewhere around 60. It's the stage just see the positive thing and bad.

10. Article : Using Erikson to Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents

Author : Lorraine DeJong

Source : www. naeyc. org/resources/journal.

Summary :

According to this article, it's speak about the using Erickson's theory to tech young moms. If we see in article, we'll learn of level of teenager parent or guardian in U. S. A. It's very big problem as a result of rate of being pregnant in teenagers become higher and it will be a sociable problem. But how Erickson's theory concern with this informative article? The writer gives the idea that it can help teacher understand teenager parent emotion and the need of them.

The writer chooses the level 1 to 5 since it concern about teenager age range. Level1 is talk about infancy. In case the teenager lacking a trust in the world, it'll influence to her baby, she will reject advice of educator. Level2-Toddlerhood, if young mom expand without responsibility, she may reprove about her problems. May be she won't look after her child. Stage3-Preschoolyears, without the positive guide brand in this level, an adolescent may luck in basic sense of inquisitiveness, ambition, and empathy, she might not involvement in her child. Level4-School-ageyears, if teen fails in success in this level, she may seems incompetent and substandard. Plus the last-Adolescence, everything rely upon the past if they didn't get trust, autonomy, effort, and industry, they could show patterns that threat for positive personality development. Following the aftereffect of Erickson's theory of teenager father or mother, a writer gives the suggestion for expanding trust; autonomy, initiative, and industry such as find the way to indentify teenager, train teens show and manger responsibility, and etc.

If adolescence mother have a good personality development technique, she will care about her responsibility to be mindful her child. It's very important to consider because every level have a so this means in term of these, if it lack or gone, it will influence to feeling of the moms and the problem will on children.

11. Article : Trust, Personality, and Ego Integrity: Modeling Erikson's Center Phases Over 34 Years.

Author : Joel R. Sneed, Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Michelle E. Culang

Source :

Summary

For this article, Writers analysis in Erikson development stages in term of key stage that consist of stage1, level5, and level8. Stage1-Trust that research in term of continuity and wholeness in the do it yourself and in another. Stage5-identity that study in the self applied and social. Along with the last is Ego integrity that analysis about exceeds of individual lifecycle. They have a hypothesis to examine the previous investigations on the RALS that results are as follow: Level1 is secure from age ranges 20 to 42, increasing in level5 for a long time 20 to 31 but stable in age ranges 31 to 42 and the previous stage8 decreases in age range 31 to 42.

After they use multilevel modeling evaluation, authors found the difference development trajectories across child and middle adulthood in each core level. The first level, writers predict undergo stable over adult but after screening, the value boosts in trust more than a 34-season period. And next is level5 follow Erikson placed the time of the Identification age ranges 20 to beyond, however the present test show that substantial not occur until the late of ages 20 and early on ages 30. Along with the last is level8 that this value is lowering. But in truth it will increase that have an impact on from environment on personality.

12. Article : Eccles Development of Children Age ranges 6-14.

Author : Jacquelynne S. Eccles

Source : The Future of Children WHEN Institution HAS GONE OUT Vol. 9 ⢠No. 2 - Fall season 1999

Summary :

This article summarized level 4 of Ericson, the major developmental change that take place from 6-14 yrs. old. Both article provide an overview of the type of biological, subconscious, and cultural changes that characterize the years between 6 to 14 for article from Eccles to facilities the our research.

For children years in stage 4 is a critical period to knowing themselves. And during this time period, children will expand to adults who have the energy, have a flexibility, feel absolve to take part in family. Physical information changes the mental condition. A social role changes and go away quickly when they go into the institution or doing activities with other beyond your family. During mid-childhood, , they'll get started to compare themselves with other, they expect success and failure, they might develop and transition to other difficulties in many years.

During early adolescence is they will confuse with physical and the communal theat differ from the beginning. They have a independence and distance between the family. Meanwhile, the situation may occur. They could lose of self confidence and also have a negatives action such as abandonment of work or resigned from the school.

13. Article : College-Educated Women's Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Years Differences

Author : Alyssa N. Zucker et all

Source : Journal of Adult Development, 8, p. 28.

Summary :

The researcher review the different between your perception of ladies in each age ranges. Procedures and level of personality development in cultural change. Plus they recognize that self confidence in each age range. The specific timing and various forms in men and women and children. Research to look for reasons and what limitations to reflect the introduction of personality initially to the finish of life.

Characteristics of personality development within the next phase of maturity We use the information for the analysis of the College of Education to consider the likelihood that people are better developed. The development will be personality kick picture benefits and drawbacks will vary. Women tend to be more concerned than men. Concerns that arise will be the future, job, financial, and family. Even maternity Developed differently in each era. Women era 40-60. Will establish faster in women era 20. Status conditions because of different concerns of people in each technology. Several teenagers are relatively private world is much less likely to develop their own personality to fit the outside world. Development will need to have their own ways to develop the correct key points of personal.

14. Article : From Trust to Intimacy: A New Inventory for Examining Erikson's Periods of

Psychosociai Development

Author : Doreen A. Rosenthal, 1. 4 Ross M. Gurney, 2 and Susan M. Moore 3

Source : Journal of Youngsters and Adolescence, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1981

Summary :

Trust to intimacy relates to the six periods of Erikson's is the partnership of each stage the adolescent, adulthood the adjustment of adolescents in conditions of dissimilarities in contest thought and attitude comparability of thought, maturity, moral and the decision of the people of each level. The some information from research workers, other who have. Both the steady and distinctive have a known reasons for supporting the theory of them home. The attitude, ethics of every stage is different. The issue of behavior or personality of individuals and experienced is influence on the reason for the study or research that the theory is accepted six level of Erikson

15. Article : THE TRAINING Impaired Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development,

Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior

Author : Daniel B. Pickar and Christopher D. Tori

Source : Journal of Youngsters and Adolescence, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1986

Summary :

This journal research about disabled adolescents on three factors: Erikson's levels of psychosocial development, self-concept, and delinquent action. It was predicted that learning disabled children would show significantly less quality of Erikson's fourth stage, "industry versus inferiority" The research workers give attention to the affective and motivational and use Erikson's psychosocial theory to understanding the social and emotional issues of learning disable adolescence. The introduction of an adequate sense of competence is the critical job of a feeling development and the effective in relationships with the surroundings.

The researcher use statistical standard of Two-way ANOVA nervous about the EPSI data, The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Level and Delinquency Checklist. To uncover to consequence of significant of gender impact between learning disable and non-learning disable teams. Gauge the significant of group and gender interaction. The comparison group of the self-concept of learning disabled adolescents showed that these youngsters self-concept was not significantly unique of nondisabled but learning disabilities are significantly related to juvenile delinquency. Hypothesized that learning impaired adolescents would demonstrate more negative self-concept and report more delinquent patterns than their nondisabled peers.

The hypothesis that learning disabled adolescents would engage in more delinquent action than nondisabled adolescents was not backed. The self-report delinquency data indicated that learning disabled and nondisabled adolescents participated in the same varieties and amounts of delinquent habit. The results of the research to provide more knowledge of the psychosocial development of adolescence on different factors.

16. Article : The Course and Psychosocial Correlates of Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Erikson's Developmental Theory Revisited

Author : Thomas N. Crawford, 1 Patricia Cohen, 2 Jeffrey G. Johnson, 3 Joel R. Sneed, 4

and Judith S. Brook5

Source : Journal of Children and Adolescence, Vol. 33, No. 5, Oct 2004, pp. 373-387 ( C _ 2004)

Summary :

Researchers give attention to personality disorder in adolescents have been related to developmental patterns of behavior assessed with dimensional indication scales, personality disruptions are age-related tendencies in personality development. How it echo to developmental procedures in long-term dangers for personality development. To knowledge of how personality disorders effect on normal psychosocial development, this study used longitudinal data from a community test to keep tabs on declines in personality disorder symptoms from early adolescence to young adulthood. They used it to formulate hypotheses about how precisely personality disorders would impact on the normative tasks of adolescence and young adulthood: (1) expanding an internal sense of well-being through the consolidation of id and (2) creating intimacy by means of lasting and devoted romantic relationships.

Although experts now concur that individuality formulation is a life-long process, adolescence and young adulthood provide the first real chance to create a sense of continuity with the past, meaning in the present, and direction for the future. Identity consolidation thus emerges as the cornerstone of the capability to do well and forms the foundation of self-acceptance and self-esteem. Individuality diffusion may reveal many characteristics with personality disorder symptoms corresponding to a community-based test of adolescents to find out whether age-related declines in Axis II symptoms are related with boosts in well-being during adolescence and interpersonal intimacy during adulthood to give attention to borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic symptoms (Cluster B symptoms).

Two groups of sample were looked into to find out if age-related declines in Cluster B symptoms are associated with raises in well-being and interpersonal intimacy during adolescence and early adulthood. To the amount that personality disorder symptoms represent identity diffusion in Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, we expected Cluster B symptoms would inhibit personality consolidation at least insofar as it manifests in well-being. They also expected Cluster B symptoms to be associated with delays in the introduction of intimacy.

17. Article : Mother, Melancholia, and Play in Erik H. Erikson's Childhood and Society

Author : Donald Capps

Source : J Relig Health (2007) 46:591-606 DOI 10. 1007/s10943-007-9123-4

Summary :

This article concentration about Melancholia that related to Erik H. Erickson's Childhood and world. He Interpret the various the two case "Mourning and Melancholia" of children's play is the issue of the mother's lack. He studies on Jean (5 year-old schizophrenic woman) that give attention to the child's romance with the mom and related to Erickson's phases.

Children with a schizophrenic propensity in early child years repudiate their own organs and functions as hostile and external to them. The first circumstance centers on the theme of maternal rejection and the next concerns the theme of maternal lack credited to circumstances beyond her control. The final outcome is the key motivation of the is mastery. In term of "Sending Electricity" of play. Capacity is the suggestion of Erikson to the primary in the sending power was in the child. He conclude that Jean's capability to play- didn't have an effect to solve the any problem about her. In term of Absent Mom. The truth of Jean target to childhood situation that related to Beyond the Pleasure Principle.

18. Article : Art Idiocy, Erikson, and Footballing Identities

Author : John Gray, and Remco Polman

Source : www. self. ox. ac. uk/Conferences/2004_Gray_Polman. pdf

Summary :

This article notify about Erikson's development play a role to focus on the talent development in sports and identity formation in sport that are in order to develop the skill of person soccer player, the Erickson's theory advises the following years as a child that your healthy personality develops positive amounts between trust and mistrust, autonomy and question, effort and guilt. You will find 3 levels of development of ability in sport.

Another about article, notify about the possible that are boost the performance in English sport. In addition, it is likely that lots of individuals will spend greatly in sport id only to find themselves. Erikson in place for people to build up their own personality in conditions of health insurance and social fulfillment functions will be permitted to explore many industry before adhering to the basic characteristics of the self-expression. The next is due to insufficient player get started the show this shows the negative impact of trying to keep self-identity is not realistic when confronted with real activities.

19. Article : Identity Development during Adolescence

Author : Jane Kroger

Source :

Summary :

In this analysis, said id of adolescents. Caused by changes in adolescent behavior to check out the correct personality to the role myself. That is an important making point in life personality to build up themselves forwards. In study the theory of Erikson on development of children is defined role and value level of popularity different personality styles, personal experiences and the nature of the human relationships between people. Which is thought to the personality to match races, religions, gender.

So family is one factor of change in adolescent patterns. Parents need to tightly control the behavior of children and liberating to work. Enter learning something new, more self-esteem, self-assurance and optimistic. Erikson's survey found that most parents would discourage the expression of the idea of teenagers; young adults make the status of stress in the planning and decision-making failures. Cause loneliness and major depression in children.

After the procedure identification of adolescents who have sophisticated. Demonstrated the amount of teenage life changes until adult, which have variety of life in time period the adolescent. That is something that is very complicated in the survey and talk that is beyond the range in study of the topic.

20. Article : Vaillant's Contribution to analyze and Theory of Adult Development

Author : Robert E. Nolan Nidhin Kadavil

Source : 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Seminar in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education

Summary :

Vaillant's Contribution to Research and theory of mature development of Robert E. Nolan Nishin Kadavil relates to the level of Erikson's. His development the idea from the Erikson's phases adulthood level. His research for adulthood to health care. Physical activity and avoidance behavior that is bad for health such as alcoholic beverages, smoking. Which have an effect on both men and women. The inquire about mental health analysis and check health of the adulthood. The activity activity, how to living with a family, relationship and divorce. Every occupation and every action all of which have bring about health and aged. The theory to learn and for used in looking after adult today.

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