Fundamental sexual phenomenon
German psychiatrist R. Kraft-Ebing considered masochism as a fundamental sexual phenomenon, considering sexual instinct to be the starting point of his psychological concept. Here is his definition of masochism: "Under masochism, I understand the particular perversion of sexual life when an individual subject to it in its sexual feelings and thoughts is in the power of complete and unconditional submission to the will of another person of the opposite feeling, which he considers his master or mistress and who exposes him humiliation and violence. This idea is colored with a sense of lust; The masochist lives in his fantasies, creating similar situations and often trying to implement them. Because of this sexual perversion, his sexual instinct is often less sensitive to the natural attractiveness of the opposite sex; the masochist actually loses his ability to have a normal sexual life, and he turns into a psychological impotent. "
According to Kraft-Ebing, the distinctive feature of masochism is submission to another person. He goes even further, arguing that masochism is the pathological development of special feminine psychic features, distinctive features: suffering, submission to the will of others, and strength; and ultimately masochism is an innate sexual perversion of and congenital abnormality caused by psychological impotence and generating it. So psychiatrists came to the conclusion that masochism denotes the pathology of sexuality. That's why the researchers stopped finding meaning in the masochistic the experience of mental suffering and to hear his inner metaphorical speech.
When I was 7-8 years old, I was traveling by train, I remember looking at the man for a long time in the groin, and there was a desire to bite. More such was never. Only later I began to be interested in dog dogs. Now I'm afraid to start a dog-dog, suddenly my mother will think something bad. I'm afraid to stay with a man in an apartment because of possible sexual relations. I always communicated only with my mother. I liked very much to sit on my knees, to embrace my mother. One day my dad saw me and my mother that I was hugging her, and said that I was hugging my mother all the time, was not I a lesbian? Since that moment my mother drove me from my knees, if my father was walking. Also I remember the film, where they searched for a long time, to whom the letter was addressed. It turned out that the letter was addressed to a woman from a woman. Although the woman who wrote this letter has a child - she loves another woman. In my family, homosexual inclinations of other people were constantly condemned. As far as I remember, my father told me that I do not have the right to vote. My father constantly humiliated my mother, he never thought of me as a person. He talked rudely to strangers, his mother said that he was ashamed to appear even on the street, because he was behaving this way. (From the diary of the patient.)
The term masochism introduced Kraft-Ebing, believing that this sexual perversion is well described in the novels of the Austrian writer Leopold Sacher-Masoch (1836-1895). In his works are beautiful femme fatale women and their unhappy beloved ones, ready for any sacrifices, just to satisfy the cruel whims of their chosen ones. So, for example, the hero of the novel "Venus in Furs" Severin becomes a hostage to his passion for the charming but cruel young widow Vanda. In every way torturing and torturing his lover, she gradually turns him into an obedient slave. But here that is surprising. Severin not only does not try to free himself from the heavy captivity, but, on the contrary, more and more becomes attached to his beautiful tormentor, with pleasure, sacrificing himself. With the inherent skill of L. Sacher-Masoch reveals the emotional experiences of his characters, whose hearts are not able to resist the exciting call of the flesh.
Sexual behavior is associated with humiliation, physical or mental suffering. Sacher-Masoch himself had specific erotic inclinations associated with the need for punishment, humiliation, persecution, physical sensation of pain and mental suffering.
Female cruelty ... This theme permeates virtually all the works of Masoch. In his stories, "demonic women" tormented by lovers of men in them. With tremendous psychological power, Masoch demonstrates how a courageous, formidable representative of the stronger sex weakens under the yoke of his own passion and turns into a martyr. This voluntary captivity not only does not burden the heroes; on the contrary, they experience the pleasure from the moral and physical torment to which their cruel beloved exert themselves. In the works of Sacher-Masoch there are no blood-chilling pictures of atrocities and cruelty. He is not as naturalistic as de Sade. Rather, he can be called a subtle psychologist of perverted passion.
Avoiding the literal reading of the metaphors of Kraft-Ebing and listening to them, we can, says American researcher Lin Cowen, hear the voice of the psyche, ie, logos ("logic", "meaning" and "speech" of masochism in the field of psychosexuality, "images of sexuality"). "We," she notes, "will again and again return with pleasure and pain to the concepts of" perversion, "" sex, "" submission, "" humiliation, "" feeling of lust, "and" psychological impotence, "trying to hear in them metaphorical resonance, trying to deepen their meaning, restoring their multi-valued and multidimensional imagery.
Let's get through this medical and scientific surface to the assumptions and the imaginary figures behind it, and then even deeper - to the ideas of Kraft-Ebing. Studies conducted on the surface bear the reflections of the qualities of their protector - Apollo: cold dispassion, academicity, enlightenment. The great work of Kraft-Ebing is brilliant and capable of striking on the spot with its sharp and sharp insights, like arrows launched from afar, from an emotionally safe distance. Due to the fact that the Apollonian attitude demanded light, clarity and objectivity, it shifted masochism into darkness, dressing it in the shroud of pathology. So, the ambiguity of masochism was recognized as a perversion, and its subjectivity became subject to an objective consideration. "Kraft-Ebing, laying out the essence of masochism, is emotionally alienated: it is beyond the norm: "We can say with confidence that we are far from Sodom idolatry, public life, legislative and religious practice of ancient Greece, not to mention the worship of Phallus and Priapus, widespread in Athens and Babylon, or from the Bacchanalia of the ancient Romans ... ".
In the monotheistic Christian imagination of the XIX century. normal The manifestation of sexuality (as L. Coaun remarks, the only thing) excluded all the monstrous excesses of Priapus (the god of antiquity, which, according to myth, differed in sexual perversions) peculiar to early paganism. But only a few decades after the release of the work of Kraft-Ebing, Freud stated that repressed material inevitably arises on the surface of the psyche. On the return to Priapus, you can actually read on every page of the "Sexual Psychopathology". After all, the German psychiatrist is trying to classify perversions. There are many of them - masochism, sadism, masturbation, homosexuality, voyeurism, fetishism. It turns out that the basis of the scientific classification of Kraft-Ebing, as well as in the depth of our psyche, is constantly present Priapus - tall and slender, with an erect phallus, causing us to have sexual feelings, the most eccentric and bizarre.
Start studying masochism with a sexual instinct - in essence, recognize the god of Priapus and his power. The work of Kraft-Ebing, dedicated to masochism, is a study of manifestations of sexuality that go into all sorts of "decency" and Restrictions norms. Here - the kingdom of Priapus, the creation of such an ugly that he was rejected by his own mother - Aphrodite. It is a space of sophisticated, perverted, refined sex. The image of the giant phallus causes, but at the same time, eliminates impotence. In the works of Kraft-Ebing a constructive image was depicted Priap with a sexual organ of unthinkable size and a degree of excitement that this image brought into sexual psychopathy the content of the shadow.
Kraft-Ebing was an expert in the field of masochism. The Austrian writer Sacher-Masoch was only an illustrator. Kraft-Ebing sought to give a theoretical definition of masochism, and Sacher-Mgshoh - created only images. He writes: "... in a big oil painting ... a beautiful woman, completely naked under a fur coat overtaken on top, sat on the couch, leaning her hand on it. Her lips are touched by a playful smile, her thick bands are tied to a Greek knot and covered with a snow-white powder. Her right hand plays with a whip, while her left hand is restlessly resting on a man standing at her feet, like a faithful slave, on a faithful dog. A well-defined pose of a perfectly built man speaks of his uncomplaining melancholy and helpless passion; he looks at the woman with the fanatical gaze of a martyr ".
Commenting on this passage, Lin Cowan shows what is depicted here, as if on a picturesque canvas. A nude woman in furs lies on a couch with a whip in her hand: "masochism" wakes up not in the stereotyped image of a sadist, but in the form of a seductive, domineering goddess. Masochist takes the image of an outspoken admirer and a humble slave, completely absorbed and absorbed in this embodiment of grandeur, similar to the Olympic, when "helpless passion" has not yet developed into "mental impotence", nor into a melancholy commitment to sexual "submission."
Expressing a certain sympathy for masochism, Kraft Ebing was ahead of his time. As for Kraft-Ebing, this Greek pagan, he is behind the times. The Austrian writer could not reconcile himself to the lean and bloodless Victorian morality, with the strict high style that prevailed in Northern Europe. His Venus, the goddess of love, living in the warm erotic atmosphere of the south, says, addressing the protagonist: "... you cherish a secret, purely pagan passion for life. You are modern people, children of the mind, you can not begin to appreciate love as pure bliss and divine serenity; such a love for people like you, essentially becomes a misfortune, because when you try to become natural, you become vulgar. Nature is your enemy. Smiling Greek gods you turned into monsters, and me - into the generation of evil. You can betray me anathema, curse me or sacrifice on my altar like insane bacchante, but if someone of you dares to kiss me in my dark red lips, he will have to dust his head and put on rags and become a hermit and barefoot to go to Rome, and there to pray for his sin until he is freed from the curse and again see the green sprouts of life, while roses, violets and myrtles are always blossoming around me. Remain in your northern fogs and Christian insensitivity and leave your pagan world to be buried under the lava and stones. Do not dig us out; Pompey was not built for you, our villas, our baths and our temples were not built for you either. Gods do not need you - in your climate they will freeze to death. "
Kraft-Ebing suffered from the fact that his work was misinterpreted. He was identified as a pervert. His contemporaries condemned the flesh as a sexual deviation.
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