There will vary counseling strategies and their main goal being that of helping a client from any delivering problem/s he/she might be encountering. The strategies in guidance include Psychodynamic strategies of Freud's Instinct Theory. The analytic Theory of Carl Gustav Jung, Thing Relations, Theory of klein, Winnicott and Fairbairn, the Primal Theory of Authert Janov and the Ethno-Psychoanalysis in African Adjustments by K Peltzer. The other branch of solutions in counseling is the humanistic methods which includes the works of Carl Rogers with Person-Centered approach, Fritz Perls of Gestalt ideas and existentialists like Rollo May, Irvn Yalom and Frankl's Logotherapy. Behaviorists like Burrhus Frederick Skinner and Watsons Canditianed. Behaviorism Techniques are also a few of the approaches found in counseling. Regarding to my conversation of the aforementioned topic I will focus on both methods of existential and psychodynamic treatments in guidance. Existentialism was a term coined by the France philosopher Jean - Paul Sartre (1905-1980) which is a synthesis of mindset and philosophy.
Irvin Yalom defines existential psychotherapy as a powerful approach to therapy which targets the concerns that are rooted in the individual's life. Regarding to E-van Deurzen-Smith of exploration of what can make like important. That is further alluded by Frankl (1969) cited by Hiles (2000) that the human being has a will to meaning.
The major proponents of Existentialism were Rollo May who created the three the different parts of being in the world which are "Umwelt" which is the natural world of biological urge and drive "Mitwelt" which is the cultural aspect, interactive and social aspect of lifestyle and eh "Eigenmelt" which is the subject world of self. The other proponent was Victor Frankl who dealt on humans search for so this means in existence and also Yalom's existentialism which dealt with death, liberty, isolation and meaningless. The other proponents of existentialism wre Ludmig Binswanger, Medard Boss and Paul Tillich.
According to Area (2003) existential approach has six key principles which are the capacity for personal awareness, independence and responsibility, striving for personality and relationship to others, the seek out meaning, and anxiety as a disorder of living and last but not least awareness of fatality and non-being. During remedy the counselor can help the client to be self aware by breaking the client's sense of hopelessness and powerlessness. For instance, a client who's HIV positive might have that sense of hopelessness and powerless over self such that he/she might be neglecting himself/herself "looking forward to death". The counselor's role is to help your client dispel that sense of helplessness and powerlessness in the client by giving the client information on the pass on and management and reduction of the HIV disease. This management information might be through having good nutrition and the hazards of re-infection if they're going to possess unprotected sex and also by taking drugs which cannot remedy the trojan but can make them live a standard life with no virus degenerating in to the loss of a person's life. Giving the client this information, the counselor would have helped the client to be aware of their status and exactly how they are to live positively with HIV which will help your client to be hopeless and powerless on the self.
According to Recreation area (2003) people are free beings and must agree to responsibility for their actions. During existential remedy the above idea of liberty and responsibility is very important to example when the counselor is counseling a woman who's actually abused by her partner. The client is assisted by the counselor to identify the options she can make and take responsibility for her selections. She can make and take responsibility for her choices. If the client feels that she can not afford to article the hubby to the regulators for concern with losing her matrimony and children, if they have any the counselor can provide your client an information into this road by revealing to her that either she actually is always heading to be abused so long as she actually is in the matrimony or she might finish up wiped out through being abused by her hubby. The other alternate which the counselor can provide your client is to inform the husband to avoid the misuse or come with him for guidance or record him to the government bodies of apply for divorce. The choice the client makes must take responsibility of these. Regarding to Corey (1991) liberty entails responsibility for one's life and living fully and accepting the consequences of our life is part of the search for meaning.
Human beings have a concern to presence their uniqueness and personality that's the reason they make an effort to personal information with others and relate well with others. During existential therapy the counselor can help the client understand his/her subjective world through being emphatic and displaying concern and not view the client as being sick. For instance a counselor might be assisting a client who is disabled which is having problems to identify with the self and relate to living. Your client by being aware of this will totally enjoy her/his life and not have neurotic anxiousness.
According to May and Yalom (2000) existentialist remedy deals with ultimate issues in life and present their clients with opportunities to explore their beliefs life styles comprehensive. The realities of fatality and loss become more significant factors and concerns. After participating in therapy clients often let go past habits, customers and values and came to find a different focus for his or her lives. The other strength of existential therapy is that they provide a construction for other farms of clients for example alcoholics anonymous that will encourage principles of face and responsibility which are essential in psychodrama; this is matching to avrahamin (1995)
Also matching to Anton and Visses 919970 the versatility of existential theory or way in teams is one durability. For example, whenever using tumors patient existentialism has been coupled with cognitive theory as well as experimental activities to create positive results. Durability of the existential therapy according to pack-brown is that they are applicant to individuals from a wide range of civilizations especially African-American women who have experienced because of open or understated prejudice and discrimination. In addition they focus on one's reason behind being and the inevitable exigencies of life within an unpredictable world.
According to Lowenstein (1993) Existential therapy has limitations for the reason that it is most readily useful and good for working with groupings who are verbal who is able to speak effectively and aren't scared to comfort conditions that are unpleasant. Those clients who cannot converse well and fear so much confronting unpleasant issues will never be helped in the existential therapy. The other weakness of existential solutions is the fact that counselor who is not mature and have very little life experiences will see it difficult to teach for essential remedy. It also needs close guidance to practice this approach this according to Deurzen-Smith (1997). The other restriction is the fact that existential therapy is broadly based, nor generally package with specific behaviours or concerns. Clients who need information or immediate answers are not good candidates for this approach lastly existential approach in guidance has limited applicability beyond guidance and psychotherapy adjustments only psycho educational, task and work organizations?
The most important aspect of the existential motion is the fact it reacts up against the tendency to recognize therapy with a set of techniques. In humans search for signifying base healing practice on a knowledge of why is men and women humans.
As mentioned earlier, the other counselling approach the writer will take a look at is the psychodynamic procedure. Psychodynamic therapies are of help in individuals, group, lovers and organization counseling and evaluation. The major contribution of psychodynamic treatments was in the area of child development and its romantic relationship to later mature development. There are various categories of psychodynamic methods pine (1988) quoted from Mpofu (2001) proposed a four group classification of psychoanalytic strategies particularly orthodox or traditional psychoanalysis, self psychology, ego mindset and object relationships. On the other hand Greenberg et al (1983) categorized psychodynamic solutions into two extensive groupings that are drive structure ideas and relational framework theories.
Freud's instant theory thing relationships are mainly based on the study of attachment in behavior in childhood. You will discover four types of connection identified by Bowl by (1982) which determine the human nature of a person. The first kind of attachment is secure connection that is when the attachment figure is available, responsive, consistent and sensitive. The second type of attachment is level of resistance attachment, when the child feels using whether the attachment figure has been available and reactive. Thirdly there may be avoidant attachment where in fact the child ha little if any assurance that he/she will be taken care of immediately in a helpful way but rather expects to be rebuffed and last but not least the ambivalent connection, whereby the attachment physique oscillates between one's protection and disregard or abuse. The instinct remedy of Freud relied on the superego determined the type of the individual. Freud's model hold that a, new given birth to intact is driven by animal instincts such as cravings for food, thirst and pleasure. With this instinct model marriage with other things becomes secondary after satisfying the primary instincts. Regarding to Melaine Klein (1953) subject relations presumed that human interactions influenced the emotional development of the average person for example, if the kid according to subject relation possessed a secure attachment during infancy he/she tends to be more positive in their effect and self-confident and persistent in problem resolving. Freud's instinct theory has two levels of development that are psycho intimate and psychosocial. In psycho erotic development there are developmental phases which are dental, which is firs time of life, the oral stage from one year to three years the phallic level from 3 years to six years. The psychosocial development has two periods mainly latency level form six years to twelve years and the genital level from twelve years to eighteen years. The instinct theory of Freud and Carl Jung's analytic theory were of the view that erotic drives are in charge of the introduction of the individual from infancy to adulthood.
There is a similarity between your object relationships theory and other psychodynamic solutions in that each of them deal with early childhood development and its own romantic relationship to later mature development which becomes its major strength as a strategy used in counselling.
Psychodynamic therapies like the instinct theory the average person is transformed through free relationship. During the transformation of the individual, in psychodynamic remedy the goal is to fortify the ego so that behaviour is based moreon actuality and less no instinctual urges. The other durability of using the psychodynamic methodology in counseling is the fact it aspires to help clients gain perception to their problems, increase their awareness to change and again logical control over their lives, foe example, a person may came for guidance after being referred or voluntarily because he/she has behaviour problems. The idea also seeks to explore the unconscious intra-psychic and inter-personal issues that are avoiding further healthy development. When clients came up for counselling the counselors use game useful techniques of interpretation. For instance, when the child performs with dolls and the kid has been sexually abused the dolls are used to interpret what the kid went through. The counselor then would interpret by watching the verbal and non-verbal communication of the child thus succeeding in assisting your client.
However the psychodynamic techniques added much in human being development, when it propounded that human mother nature is very deterministic because it assumes human mother nature follows an inevitable pre-planned avenue. This it claims that the kid begets the adult because all behaviour is determined, molded and influenced generally by childhood experiences, meaning the first five/six years of a person life influence the next life of the average person. The major constraints of the psychodynamic methods is that it requires several long lessons with your client where in a counselor extracts information from the client about his/her marriage with parents, or what occurred in the client's family environment.
The other limitation of the strategy break in the techniques of remedy used wherein the counselor performed a unaggressive role and the emphasis on the past occasions for information on your client. Freud as the grand mother or father of psychodynamic strategies produced his ideas from a medical standpoint, and assumed that humans have pathology and need remedy from his/her malady. But in counseling we presume people are finance mentally healthy beings that require the support of others to help them handle their daily life.
Above all the other theoretical solutions have benefited either because some one was unhappy about same ideas or because there is a paradigm transfer that led to other theories growing. It really is great to note that a few of the psychodynamic principles have been consumed into other theories though under different labels or some terminology applied in another way. The major contribution of psychodynamic techniques was in the area of child development and its marriage to later adult development.
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