The main features of similarity and differences between humans and anthropoids
Human and anthropoid morphology
Numerous observations and studies reveal both similarity and differences between the morphological and psychological characteristics of anthropoid apes and humans.
Man - a social creature that created a magnificent civilization. Man is distinguished from all animals by constant uprightness, relatively large brain, articulate speech, an extraordinary capacity for abstraction, giving birth to consciousness, systematic work and social life. Morphological differences are largely due to the adaptation of monkeys to life on trees. The transition of our ancient ancestors from walking on all fours and climbing to upright walking served as a decisive step in the evolution of man. This method of movement has opened up wide opportunities for improving manipulations made by hands.
The English anatomist A. Keiz identified 1065 human features, of which only this species is characteristic 312. 396 the same signs were observed in man and chimpanzee, 385 in man and gorilla, 354 in man and orangutan , 117 - in humans and gibbons, 113 - in humans and other lower monkeys, and, at last, 17 common signs - in humans and semi-ovaries.
The great similarity of human karyotypes and many species of lower monkeys is established. Thus, the study of the phylogeny of chromosomes of 60 species of primates from a mouse microcelebus to humans showed their complete analogy. The greatest similarity of chromosomes is found in a person with a chimpanzee - it reaches 98-99%.
Evidence of close similarity and kinship is also the "human" genetic diseases in monkeys: Down's syndrome, alkaptonuria, developmental anomalies. The histocompatibility complex (the affinity of the tissues necessary for organ transplantation) is localized at similar loci of homologous chromosomes of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, rhesus monkeys and humans.
Monkeys have a well developed facial musculature, which allows them, like a human, to use facial expressions extensively. Amazing mobility of the lips of monkeys; they are red in a dwarf chimpanzee.
Similarly, in humans and monkeys and indicators associated with blood circulation: the frequency of respiration and heartbeats, blood pressure and electrocardiograms.
The brain of all monkeys is much more complicated than in other animals. But the differences in its structure between all groups of monkeys and humans are minimal. In primates, the new cortex is much better developed than the ancient one, and the newest structures of this cortex, the frontal and temporal regions, are laid with the human fetus very early. A person finds special affinity with African anthropoids. The brain of a gorilla and a chimpanzee is similar to the human brain not only in the general appearance and arrangement of the furrows and gyri, but also in the arrangement of the architectonic systems of the cerebral cortex and along the systems of conducting paths. Recently, it has been shown that gorillas predominantly use the right arm, and this speaks of brain asymmetry in monkeys, analogous to the asymmetry of the human brain.
At the same time, there are important differences between the human brain and the brain of higher monkeys. Thus, with the almost identical cellular organization of homologous regions, the chimpanzee has a finer structure than the human fiber structure, which provides cortical connections. This sharp difference in the system of cortical connections reflects a lower level of functional capacity, in other words, the mental activity of anthropoids in comparison with humans. The greatest differences in comparison with other structures in monkeys, including higher ones, are precisely those parts of the cortex that are associated with articulate speech in humans.
Noticeably an increase in the overall size of the brain in the evolutionary series from Australopithecus to a reasonable human being, and from the lower monkeys to the anthropoids and humans. This occurs primarily due to the neocortex, or a new cortex. Thus, the area of the ancient cortex in the macaque is 93.8 mm2, the chimpanzee has 324.8 mm2, the human has 480 mm2, the area of the new cortex: 6,456 mm2 in the macaque, 22,730 mm2 in the chimpanzee, and 80,202 mm2 in man. It is important that in animals before primates the ratio of the new and the ancient cortex is much more primitive than in the macaques. The old elements of the brain (part of the brain located at the base of the skull), responsible for the vital functions of the body: the reproductive, the instinct of self-preservation, the circulation of blood, breathing, sleeping, contracting muscles, maintaining equilibrium, etc., not so much. At the same time, an incredible gap between such a high resemblance between a person and a chimpanzee in the physiology of internal organs and metabolic processes and with such a striking difference of intellect is quite paradoxical.
So, the most dramatically on the way to a person has changed the brain, its new formations, which regulate the "newest", higher functions. The most vivid expression of these functions in animals is behavior.
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