The main problems of development of the psyche
General features of the development process
Development is a process of qualitative changes - the emergence of new formations, new mechanisms, processes and structures. For them, the following patterns are typical:
• progressive character, when already passed, higher stages seem to repeat the known features and properties of the lower, but at a higher level;
• irreversibility, i.e. movement at a new level, where the results of the previous development are realized;
• Development is a unity of struggling opposites, which are the driving force of the development process. It is the resolution of internal contradictions that leads to a new stage of development.
The main signs of development are:
• differentiation, i.e. the dismemberment of a phenomenon formerly uniform,
• the emergence of new sides, new elements;
• reorganization of connections between the sides of the object.
The modern idea of the mental development of the individual sees its causes in various biological and social factors, the uniqueness of the way of the formation of each individual. Gradually there is an expansion and refinement of the conceptual apparatus necessary for revealing the laws of human development. A number of concepts appear that clarify the term development :
1) evolutionary development , i.e. the emergence of a new compared with the previous stage (here can be attributed neoplasms of age periods);
2) involutional changes (loss of previously formed psychic properties and qualities that took place in the previous period). Such changes occur not only in old age, but also in adolescence, adolescence - as a result of the accumulation of changes that change into neoplasms;
3) Heterochronic development (manifestation of mental qualities at different times: some functions outstrip others in development);
4) biological development. It is believed that development is determined by hereditary and innate factors. Congenital is determined by intrauterine development, but by
investigative - the transfer of information from ancestors to the offspring at the expense of the gene apparatus;
5) social development (occurs under the simultaneous influence of the natural and social environment, the historical development of society, nationality and other factors);
6) special development (development of mental functions, processes, personality traits within the vocational training, eg development of professional memory, thinking, attention, abilities, etc.).
Driving forces and sources of development of the psyche
Under the driving forces of personal development, understand the needs of the child, his motivation, external stimuli of activity and communication, goals and tasks that adults place in the education and upbringing of children. If the goals of upbringing and education correspond to the motivation of the child, then favorable conditions will be created for development from the point of view of the driving forces.
Human needs are subdivided according to the degree of expression and necessity, from simple, lower, and higher to:
1) biological (the need for safety and self-preservation, emotional contact, an approximate need, the need for motor activity, the game);
2) psychophysical (needs in emotional saturation, freedom, energy recovery);
3) social (the need for self-esteem, communication, cognition, self-expression);
4) higher (the need to be a person, moral and aesthetic needs, the need to search for the meaning of life, preparedness and overcoming difficulties, the need for creativity and creative work).
Each age meets their needs, satisfaction of which is important for normal personal development. Delayed satisfaction of certain needs or incomplete satisfaction of them may adversely affect the development of the individual.
One of the important moments of the driving force is motivation. It performs several functions: motivates behavior, directs and organizes it, gives it a personal meaning and meaning (meaningful motivation).
In order for motivation to be stable and positive, it is necessary to have all three functions. The latter function is especially important: it is central to the nature of the motivational sphere. On the basis of what the activity has for the child, the manifestations of the impelling and guiding functions depend. Therefore, because of how the sense-forming function will be formed, the success of the activity depends. Therefore, it is this function that must first be paid attention to in education.
These motivational functions are realized by many motivations (ideals and value orientations, needs, motives, goals, interests, etc.). At different age stages their significance manifests itself in different ways. This fact must also be taken into account when raising.
The process of child development occurs in certain conditions, surrounded by objects of material and spiritual culture, people and relationships between them. In other words, the development of the child depends on the social situation. The social situation is the starting point for all the changes that occur in the development of the child during the growing up period. It determines the forms and ways of the child's development, the types of his activity, the new psychic properties and qualities that he acquires. All these are the conditions for the child's psychological development. Indeed, the same children, the driving forces of development of which are the same, can develop differently under different conditions. The more favorable the conditions for the development of the child, the more it can achieve in a short period of time. Therefore, special attention must be paid to the social conditions of development.
The sources of development are leading activities, the leading type of communication and development crisis.
The leading type of communication - is communication, as a result of which the main positive personality traits are formed and fixed.
Leading activity - is an activity that results in the greatest progress in the development of the psyche at a certain stage of development and the formation of new formations of a given age period.
Each age period is characterized by a special kind of activity. When moving from one period to another, the leading activity also changes. Modern psychologists have identified the following types of leading activities.
1. At the age from birth to 1 year - direct emotional communication of the child with adults. Neoplasm is the need for communication and grasping.
2. At the age of 1 year to Zlot - subject-manipulative activity. Neoplasm is self-awareness ( I myself ).
3. Children of preschool age (3-6 years) inherent in gaming, story-role play. Neoplasms - there is an internal position of the schoolboy, there are arbitrary behavior, personal consciousness, subordination of motives, primary ethical instances, the first schematic outline of a single child's worldview.
4. Educational activity - in children of primary school age (6-11 years). Neoplasms are the formation of theoretical thinking, intensive intellectual development, "memory becomes thinking, and perception is thinking."
5. Adolescence (from 10-11 to 14-15 years) is characterized by communication, which extends to various activities: labor, educational, sports, art, etc. New growths are: the emergence of a sense of adulthood, a tendency to reflect, self-knowledge, interest in the opposite sex , sexual maturation, the need for self-assertion, self-determination.
The change of leading activity leads to the onset of a crisis in development. This is due to the fact that the needs of the child are changing - some disappear, others appear, but the means to meet new needs are not yet formed.
The development crisis in the treatment of LS Vygotsky is the concentration of sudden and major shifts and shifts, changes and fractures in the personality of the child. Crisis is a turning point in the normal course of mental development. It arises then, when the inner course of child development has completed some cycle, and the transition to the next cycle will be a critical one. " .
L. S. Vygotsky believed that the essence of each crisis is the restructuring of internal experiences, the relationship of the child and others, changes in needs and motivations. The crisis occurs at the junction of two age periods and characterizes the end of one period and the beginning of another.
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