Fundamentals of the Adler theory
A person is a single and consistent organism. No manifestation of a person's vital activity can be viewed in isolation, but only in relation to the person as a whole.
Human life is a continuous movement towards growth and development in the direction of personally significant goals. Human life aims determine his fate.
Human behavior is the result of the influence not only of heredity and environment, but also of the creative power that makes a person an architect of his life.
The individual can not be perceived outside society, and his behavior is outside the social context. Each person has a natural sense of community or social interest, i.e. innate desire to enter into mutual social relations of cooperation.
The behavior of a person is determined by his ideas about himself and the world around him, i.e. apperception scheme .
Human behavior is motivated by unattainable goals, or fictions.
Each person experiences in childhood a sense of inferiority, when it depends on the parents. This feeling encourages a person to fight for superiority over others, strive for excellence. Such motivations are the main motivational force in a person's life, starting from the age of five.
Development of inferiority complex in childhood is also promoted by inferiority of organs, excessive evaluation or rejection by parents.
An excessive sense of inferiority leads to the formation of an inferiority complex in a person, i.e. to an exaggerated sense of our own weakness and insolvency.
The inferiority complex causes aspiration to its hypercompensation and as a result generates a complex of superiority (exaggeration of a healthy desire to overcome feelings of inferiority).
The aspiration for excellence, being a universal trait, can have both a constructive (for example, a public leader) and a destructive (for example, the leader of a gang) direction. If the former is correlated with the well-being of other people, the latter is selfish and realized at the expense of other people.
On the style of life
The form of realization of the desire for excellence determines the life style of a person, i.e. an individual way of achieving life goals.
The life goal is protective and serves as a bridge between a bleak present and a promising future. Formed in childhood, the life goal is not fully realized. The life goal determines the character traits of a person.
By definition, Adler, there are three constructive life goals: work, friendship and love.
About personality types
Depending on the severity of orientation to social interest and social activity in human life, the following types of personality are distinguished:
-control type is inherent in self-confident and assertive people with little social interest. They solve their problems mainly in an antisocial, hostile manner;
- the taking type is characterized by a parasitic attitude toward the outside world, it has a low social interest and average activity;
- avoiding type is typical for people who are more afraid of failure than striving for success. He has a low social interest and average activity.
- socially useful type is characterized by high social interest and activity, is the embodiment of maturity. People of this type take care of others and are interested in communicating with them.
The combination of such qualities as high social interest and low activity is impossible.
Adler on social interest
Social interest is innate, but it requires development, which is due to the social environment and, above all, the family.
A mother's healthy love contributes to the development of social interest, and her husband's preference for children is not.Positive attitude of the father towards his wife, work, society and children also contributes to the development of children's social interest, and emotional detachment and authoritarianism - no.
The degree of social interest in a person is an indicator of his mental health. People with low social interest are distinguished by egocentrism.
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