Main types of speech and the psychology of its understanding
Like any other complex phenomenon, speech can be classified for different reasons. First, we distinguish the speech external and internal, about the difference which is sufficiently said in the previous paragraph.
Actually, psychology should investigate only inner speech. But, since the psyche, as a subject of psychology, realizes all forms of material activity, including external speech, psychology, of course, can not remain aloof from their study. All subsequent gradations of speech refer to its external form.
Secondly, speech is divided into oral and written on the basis of its physical performance, the form of the material carrier of the word as a unit of language: sound or a written sign.
• Varieties of oral speech consider in the direction of their complication and in the order of formation in the process of mental development of the personality.
1. The simplest and early (in ontogenesis) form is affective speech , the name of which is determined by the features of the motivation. Such a speech is prompted mainly by an acute emotion, an affect. It is simple, because its motive is primitive, in fact there is no thought. This speech is an interjection type, not requiring complex grammatical constructions and rich vocabulary; existing as a verbal output, direct expression of acute and, as a rule, short-term experience.
Suppose a person suddenly stumbled, fell and smashed the bearable object. What will he say at the first moment? Of course, not why he fell and how expensive he is to the broken thing. This then - verbal explanations, claims, regrets, tears, etc. But in the beginning there will be some sharp, unconscious, as if explosive and outraged "ooh-ahi", monosyllabic curses and other interjective lexicon. In such words, in fact, there is no designation of a particular object, there is no thought. This is not even a word, but a set of sounds taken by people to refer to a sudden emotion (positive or negative). In affective speech, do not neither the meaning nor the meaning of the word. There is only one voice component left - captured human emotion.
In its pure form, affective speech is not so common, but its interspersions in other types of speech are widespread. They are expressive in their own way, irreplaceable, emotionally contagious in the sense of impact on other people. Some affective words, phrases, phrases can act even as an individual psychological feature of the individual or some specific group of people. This type of speech is also close to the so-called obscene language and its specific vocabulary.
2. Oral dialogical speech assumes the presence of an interlocutor, a partner, i.e. any communication. Forms and variations of the dialogue can be very different, even if they are not very similar in content, goals, means, conditions, participants, types of contact. This, for example, is emotionally intense communication between the child and his mother, and a detailed philosophical dialogue of tragedy heroes on the stage, standard and everyday, often formal communications about health or weather conditions, as well as complex, specific types of professional dialogue between a teacher, lawyer, psychologist-consultant, speech therapist, leader.
Common to the dialogical speech remains this or that division, the distribution between the participants of the motive of communication and its content, thoughts, themes. In the dialogue, the personalities of both participants of the joint speech are manifested. You can differentiate motivations and thoughts in different ways, in different quantitative and qualitative relationships. But in any variant, in a dialogical speech there is always a situational non-speech context, non-linguistic means (facial expressions, gestures, etc.) are involved, therefore, grammatical abbreviations and language simplifications are possible in the dialogue, and language simplifications are sometimes necessary.
There is also a schematic separation of the two main varieties of dialogical speech:
• dramatic speech, which has a high emotional richness, wealth Esherezchevyh funds, is built in short phrases as direct, colloquial speech;
• epic speech, arising later on in ontogeny and being indirect, grammatically unfolded.It is psychologically important that dialogue is always realized by concrete, live people, therefore the features of dialogical speech are conditioned (apart from objective reasons) by the psychological characteristics of its performers. Psychologically, any component of the psychological structure of a personality known to us can turn out to be a decisive factor: from a stable orientation to a changeable mood, from temperamental properties to features of the imagination, from the level of development of speech abilities to the effectiveness of social perception.
• Written speech is formed in the child after all types of oral speech, on their basis and is psychologically the most difficult. This is due to three objective circumstances.
First, written speech has a special, graphic, alphabetic character. The letters mean (replace) sounds, phonemes of the native language, which the child possesses before the symbolism of the letters, so there is a very difficult translation of sounds in letters, in syllables and written words. But it's not written as you hear it. The linguistic rules of written speech are more complicated and stricter than the canons of oral speech. Thus, written speech is qualitatively different from oral, although it happens that a person "says, as he writes". Incorrect, unsuccessfully said thought is easier to correct, to adjust to the desired result, than incorrectly written and, especially, already printed, published statement. Speech passes into a stable, material, linguistic existence. It has long been noted: "What is written with a pen, you can not cut an ax."
In addition, in the characters of written speech is limited (in comparison with the oral) the amount of funds intended for the transfer of extra-personal, personal, emotional content. A paragraph, punctuation marks, interrogative and exclamation marks are, in essence, everything that is available in written speech for expressing innumerable shades of joy, questioning, pause, accentuation, highlighting and the like variety of nuances of meanings and emotional coloring of words. Of course, writers and poets can cope with these difficulties. However, the literary text in the performance of a professional actor, as a rule, is represented and perceived by the viewer and listener more expressive than the same text, read "about yourself."
The second complexity of written speech is the physical absence of the immediate interlocutor, of the specific addressee of the speech. The future reader is somehow implied, mentally present in the mind of the author of the written text. But one thing, for example, another letter to a friend, another is the text of an announcement or an order for an institution, the third is a textbook for school, the fourth is a literary work of a certain genre. In the designated chain, account for the presence effect the prospective reader is to a varying degree of complexity. The addressee of written speech can also be extremely generalized, almost abstract. Accordingly, the written speech is also modified: from the stereotypical enumeration of family news and greetings to the high style of poetry, to deep scientific treatises, "Aesopian" whose language can be understood only by the narrow specialists of this profession. Although it should be said that simple correspondence of people (written dialogue) in professional performance can acquire genre of literary work. Any speech is created not by objective linguistic signs, the same for all, but by a living, unique author as a subject. It is not at all necessary to be a literary critic to distinguish, for example, the texts of IS Turgenev from the texts of MA Sholokhov.
Written speech is deprived of the process of the author's perception of his partner and consumer, does not take into account the concrete situation of real reading. There is no direct and live contact, interaction and the possibility of adjusting, adapting the written speech are excluded, since it does not have the feedback of the "interlocutors".
Finally, the third complexity of written speech is due to the fact that its content, theme, the object modeled in the speech, as a rule, are generalized, abstract, complex or scientific. Hence the need for completeness of presentation, observance of grammatical rules and logical laws, the availability of evidence, the structural organization of the text, the correspondence of style and theme (both form and content), and many other requirements.
Thus, a written speech requires the performer to have conscious, meaningful motives, unfolding and clarity of thought, active work of inner speech, appropriate knowledge of the language. This is not just speech as communication, but a complex, complex kind of mental, including intellectual, activity; powerful psychological tool not only of thinking, but of the whole psyche, of personality. Therefore, written speech (as well as its understanding - reading) should be taught to all children and people, regardless of their future profession. This is a kind of basic component of human and the opportunities for further expansion of his knowledge, personal and professional growth. Written speech is the main keeper and means of transferring knowledge, experience of previous generations. Opportunities oral traditions in this sense are significantly limited, intermittent, unstable. Written speech provides the opportunity to return, repeatedly resorting to the objective source. This is all the more significant because it is obvious that technological progress has been made in improving the material means and carriers of the results of written speech: from rock carvings and birchbark letters to books and modern information and computer media, devices and technologies, from the recent goose feather to color laser printers. >
& gt; Somewhat apart from these types of speech is the so-called egocentric speech. This term, introduced by J. Piaget, emphasizes the specifics of the preschooler's speech (especially the three-year-old age), which talks as if to himself, to himself and himself, to no one, not seeking to understand. Of general psychological interest are the discussions with the position of J. Piaget of a number of Soviet psychologists (LS Vygotsky, SL Rubinstein and many of their followers). Egocentric speech is not primary in the child, but derived from its external oral speech; it is like a beginning, a certain stage of the formation of inner speech, which in an adult can be self-centered, while remaining socialized in origin. Any speech is ultimately oriented towards the realization of this or that interaction and communication of a person with other people. Any meaningful human utterance has its own addressee, presupposes the presence of someone's understanding.
If you do not take into account all kinds of abnormalities and pathologies, the need for communication, recognition, understanding is the person of one of the leading. A person seeks to understand himself, understand others and be understood by other people. Understanding is an integral part of human existence. And such an understanding there is a complex psychic process that includes not only speech, but also perception, memory, thought, experience, and consciousness-in other words, the whole human psyche.
The psychology of understanding speech. Let's consider some questions of the psychology of understanding speech. They are extremely important, practically meaningful, because among all objective, behavioral manifestations of the psyche there are, in essence, two main: the word and case, ie. external speech and concrete subject activity.
Understanding speech is the path from the objective, the symbolic to the subjective, the psychic. This is the direction of the process of interiorization, the inverse of the one described in the analysis of the psychology of the speech utterance.
It is purely conditionally possible to distinguish three stages of understanding speech. It is simpler, more imaginative to imagine if you mean a foreign language that the reader has not yet mastered. For the native language, the listed stages usually pass as if at once, simultaneously, without making up special internal difficulties and not becoming the property of the consciousness of the person.
In the beginning, it is necessary to decipher the meaning of the word and choose that its adequate interpretation, which is called sense. This choice, as noted earlier, is conditioned by the situation, the context, the personality itself. It is created, born in a specific activity and task.
So, being in the barbershop, we effortlessly realize that the word "spit" means device hair (hair), but the same word during the river walk, we unambiguously understand as a yellow strip of sand at the water's edge along the shore.
The second stage of understanding is the decoding of the meaning of the phrase, sentence, thought in general. For this it is not enough to know individual words. You need to know the order of their connections and combinations, the possibilities of permutations. It is necessary to have grammatical constructions and punctuation rules.
Take, for example, the phrase of the tsar's decree known to every United States person: "You can not pardon", the meaning of which essentially changes from the place where the comma is staged.
Thoughts are made up of words not according to the rules of arithmetic or the formula of mathematical combinations. The laws of linguistics and the "sense of language" work here. As an illustration, one can cite the slogan, which was extremely widespread in our country in the middle of the last century: "Communism is Soviet power plus electrification of the whole country". Try to impose an imposed arithmetic with these words. Then it turns out that "electrification is communism minus Soviet power". From the point of view of the content contained in the original political slogan, it will be completely absurd.
Thought requires for its expression careful, thoughtful handling of words.
Indirectly, but intelligibly this banal rule confirms the results of seemingly simple philological research but a multiple translation of the text from one language to another. A small passage from the tale II was taken. V. Gogol's "Nose", which described how the hero, looking in the mirror, with horror does not find on his face a nose. This text was launched through a chain of translators, each of whom was fluent in two languages: United States - English, English - French, etc. When the text was again translated into United States from another foreign language, it was completely unrecognizable. For example, the nose from the part of the face turned into a ship's nose, and the plot presented in the text became completely different than in the original.
Apparently, a completely adequate, synonymous translation of complex, artistic texts from one language to another is, in principle, impossible. You can not get an exact verbal copy of a foreign original. You can, of course, "literally", pass the content line by line, but the specific nuances of meanings and emotions specific to each national language will disappear, and the living speech of the primary source will disappear. It is possible, perhaps, to convey and adapt to the other culture the meanings themselves, but then absolutely other words, sentences, situations, general cultural context are needed, therefore the result obtained will be the same as "translation", as the author's (and not only speech) work.
The highest stage of understanding speech is to understand the general meaning of the statement, understanding the motive of the speaker, his attitude to the content of his speech and the very situation of communication (conversation, speech, text). One and the same can be said about quite differently. A person chooses words and uses meanings that express not just a thought, but in a certain sense, his original motivation. At this stage of understanding, we realize how a person refers to what he is talking about; why he uses exactly these words; what a sense it all has for him. This means that we perceive not only the thought contained in the speech, but also to a certain extent recognize the speaker himself. Of course, it is not easy to understand a person to the end, but most likely, it is simply impossible. But if it is possible to add to the verbal understanding all the other aspects of the psychology of personality previously described, the image of any person will at least be more adequate, closer to its unique original.
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