Previous research studies have concluded that human beings have a need to affiliate marketing themselves with their peers, especially in stressful situations. An experiment conducted by Schachter (1959) assumed that when faced with a particularly difficult stressor we seek the company of those people that are in the same predicament as ourselves. This paper seeks to analyze the idea behind the necessity for affiliation and also to thwart the old status belief that we only seek the collection of men and women in our same situation. Yacov Rofe oversaw a study of 212 Israeli children and their parents that says otherwise. The background to Henry Murray's theory and the complete research of the Israelis are further reviewed.
Introduction to Henry Murray's Theory
Henry Murray's educational training was anything but typical with the of a psychology professor; he accomplished a bachelor's degree ever sold, a master's level in biology from Columbia College or university, and a doctorate in Biochemistry. It was after reading many of Carl Jung's publicized work and establishing a meeting with the legendary Swiss psychiatrist that he was persuaded into learning psychoanalysis. He completed his trained in Harvard University and later trained and conducted his research there until his retirement life in 1962.
While Murray was director of the Psychological Medical clinic in Harvard he developed a term for studying personality that he called "personology. " His theory was that personality was implanted in the brain. A person's cerebral composure dictates every feature of one's personality; exactly what the personality will depend on such as feelings, memories, values etc. , prevails in the brain therefore so does indeed the personality. Murray also known in his theory that although people do function to reduce mental health and physiological anxiety we do not take action to totally eliminate that stress and that a tension-free environment can be an affliction itself.
Along with Christiana Morgan, Henry Murray developed the Thematic Apperception Test. With this projective test a subject is presented with a number of black and white pictures and the topic is asked to inform a tale about each picture. The test is known as to be always a projective test because it is hypothesized that the topic will task their feelings, concerns, hopes etc. , in to the story that he or she explains to (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2005). The analysis of the experiences is situated upon Murray's concept of need and press. (1938)
Murray presumed that psychology's main concerns should be of individual lives rather than of people all together. His strategy was to breakdown a person's complex patterns into smaller and much more manageable units. The essential unit is called a proceeding and the continuation of proceedings is a serial. A proceeding is "a period period in which an important habit structure occurs from starting to end" (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). Proceedings are usually associated with interactions if they are real or fantastical. A serial is a "succession of proceedings related to the same function or purpose" (Schultz & Schultz, 2009). Serials are related to time and function. The studies conducted on these needs were the stepping stones for the introduction of Murray's theory of the need for affiliation.
What is the need for affiliation? By definition, an affiliation is the inclination to get the business of others. Pets or animals tend to isolate into groups, flocks, and classes for food, migratory purposes or cover. In humans, affiliation has a lot less to do with instincts and a lot more with motives. For example, when people are frightened they have a tendency to seek comfort by being with a group of people for support. The business where they seek may help them in soothing down and reducing the anxiety. Additionally it is suggested that folks tend to seek others who are in their same situation for reassurance (Piotrowski, 2004).
Studies Conducted on the Need for Affiliation
Over the years there have been several research initiatives to both establish and dismiss Henry Murray's theory of the necessity for Affiliation. A study that was conducted by Craig A. Hill recommended a person with strong affiliation needs may become more likely to express that require if the connections was warm and compassionate yet, a person with low affiliation needs conveyed little inclination to service whether the interaction was compassionate or not (Hill, 1991). Another survey explored whether or not there was a notable difference in the needs for affiliation in folks of different age range, sexes and education level (Ray & Hall, 1995). The study that people will be concentrating on was overseen by Yascov Rofe of Bar-llan University or college in Israel using 212 Israeli children and their parents. The themes were reviewed from January to March of 2003, when it was assumed that there was a high risk for an Iraqi assault against Israel. His hypothesis was that the Israeli young families would prefer the business of less restless citizens as opposed to the company of family members that were evenly distressed.
The members of the analysis contains 212 Israeli children with the age range between 9-12 years of age (80 boys, 128 girls and 4 that didn't report gender technical specs) and 212 parents (38 fathers, 172 moms, and 2 did not record a gender).
The degree of the partaker's matter was determined by asking the following question: "From what scope are you concerned that a conflict will use in Iraq which Saddam Hussein will flames missiles toward Israel?" The reactions were in a size format that ranged from 1 (no stress) to 4 (high degrees of anxiety). The contributor's affiliation inclinations were evaluated by their response to the next questions: "With whom would you'd like to be in case of battle?" which was rated on the scale from 1 (someone with a higher level of fear) and 3 (someone without fear) and "Would you'd like to talk about war-related issues or other issues?" also judged over a 3-point scale with 1(war-related problems), 2 (never to speak) and 3 (talk about irrelative issues).
For this analysis questionnaires were given between January and March 2003. During this timeframe terrorist movements was well-known and there is a severe probability of a surge of conflict with Iraq. The kids completed their part if the questionnaire in school or youth groupings and their parents at home. All the participants completed the questionnaire in front of the interviewer, who was simply blind, in order to keep the confidentiality of the members.
The data proved that the cheapest ratio of the adult participants (2. 2%) wished to affiliate marketing themselves with a person with more anxiety they acquired, and 10. 8% of the contributors wished to be around people who have the same degree of anxiety and that the majority of the participants (87. 1%) would rather be associated with people who have no anxiousness. The ends up with the children were relatively the same. Several tables were come up with to examine the relationship between generation, panic and affiliation. The results figured the interaction of those factors were important. In order to further explore the source of the connections a chi-square test (a test used to find out if there was a noteworthy difference between the hypothesized data and the acquired data) was implemented. The email address details are found in Stand 1 and 2.
The chi-square data stand shows that the majority of the members both in people and children preferred discussing topics that were unrelated to the battle (54. 2%) or would rather stay silent (13. 5%). Only a relatively little bit of the partakers (32. 3%) were thinking about speaking about the warfare and receiving some kind of clearness on the matter. The same holds true for children. Another stand was produced to identify the partnership between discussion of the battle, generation and stress levels. These were each done separately for children and parents. The results are shown in Desks 3 and 4.
The reason for this research was to demonstrate that when people are faced with dangerous and tense situations people would prefer to affiliate themselves with less restless peers. In individuals (who were more alert to the problems that the situations shown) this happening was present regardless of the applicants own nervousness levels whereas in children that propensity was straight related to the child's own panic level. These conclusions contradict one of the first experiments in the happening of need for affiliation that was conducted by Schachter (1959) regarding electric impact and that the people who were expecting a impact searched for the comfort of others who were looking forward to a similar thing. In the study of the Israeli individuals it seems as if adults would like to seek the comfort of non-anxious peers because they're trying to escape and relax somewhat than speak about the conflict and wrap up with more fear. In children it appears as though the kids seek the comfort of less apprehensive peers because they are struggling to take any precautionary measures and then for distraction.
In summation, Henry Murray's theory of the need for affiliation derived from his experimentation in Harvard School regarding the theories of personality. He is convinced that the human being personality in situated in the mind because that is where our belief, remembrances etc. , lie. He later developed the TAT test along with his colleague Christiana Morgan. Murray also was a firm believer that mindset should focus more on an individual's experiences somewhat than people all together and general subject. He produced a way where to breakdown a subject's more complex habits into more controllable units. He called these units proceedings and serials. It was due to this break down that he found the need for affiliation. An affiliation is the necessity to establish a connection with other people especially during troubled times.
The case study that we focused on was proof that people do seek comfort during extreme nerve-racking situations but it addittionally thwarted Schachter's old notion that those who find themselves in the same situation tend to seek out comfort in peers that are going through the same situation. This review suggested that those who find themselves troubled would rather pursue an affiliation with a person who is either much less anxious or difficult and if they're anxious, they might prefer not to discuss it. It really is believed that is basically because as a grown-up you are interested in a getaway from the stressor. In children, they tend to seek peers without anxieties because they can not prevent the stressor and are looking for reassurance or a distraction.
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