The needs of the natural individual (subject of natural relations)
The first layer of related needs or life tasks of the natural subject is determined by the relations to ensure the continuation of the family. This, above all, two basic needs and their corresponding behavior - needs that determine sexual and parental behavior (feeding, heating, security and so forth.) They require solving a number of subtasks that act towards them as derivatives requirements:
• The need for a device to place and spawn offspring (burrows, nests, lairs, etc.);
• the need for demonstration behavior that attracts individuals of the opposite sex, and often the task of attracting is carried out through morphological changes (changes in body color, moulting, etc.) and the liberation of odorous substances;
• the need for communication and courting, providing partner choice and pairing (dancing, singing, color and light signals, etc.);
• The need for status within the community (it is known that 70-80% of the calves in the monkey pack are provided by three to four males of the higher ranks, and low-ranking males do not participate in reproduction, which ensures the quality of the offspring. or struggle for the status of female hyenas, where the leader in the pack is a female having privileges for her offspring);
• The need to protect their territory, protect the cubs, etc.
Note that sexual behavior only provides a condition for the continuation of the genus, having as its subject not the future offspring, but only mating with the partner. The decision by the subject of natural relations of this task leads in the norm to the solution of the problem of the species in reproduction. Such relationships can also be within one level: removal of carbon dioxide from the body (exhalation) automatically leads to oxygen supply through inhalation of a new portion of air saturated with oxygen.
A special set of needs related to reproduction exists in young people, often unable to live without the help of their parents. It should be noted that the status of the community, the protection of the territory and communication with individuals of its own and other species also fulfill other important functions: ensuring order in the community, ensuring the exchange of information on sources of poverty or danger, etc.
The next independent requirement of the subject of natural relations is the need for security, in self-preservation with feelings of fear, danger, rage and in the appropriate behavior - defensive, camouflage or avoiding danger.
This was the circle of needs of the natural subject, related to the relationship "subject-subject". No less important are the relations of the natural subject, or the subject of natural activity, with physical objects from his field of action, because the life of the organism depends on these relations as a result. In these relations, the subject acts as a means of providing the organism with the necessary conditions of existence, represented in the objects of the field of action. These objects can have for the subject the biological meaning of food or danger, can act as reference points or auxiliary means of their natural activity, as barriers or background of activity. To elucidate these values, the subject carries out research activity as a solution to the vital task of providing orientation in the field of action. There is experimental evidence of the existence of such research needs in animals.
It is known that only the general pattern of behavior (behavioral skeleton ) is set genetically for the young, and adjustment of adaptive behavior goes directly into the life of each young individual. But there are behaviors that will be needed only in the future, but almost ready. For their training there is a game activity that realizes the need for a game. The content of games is determined by the tasks of future behavior. It's no coincidence that the games of young animals of different species are very similar - this is the escape from the attack, this attack is protection of oneself and sexual games, which allows even youngsters of different types to arrange joint games.
Behavior presupposes the readiness of the performance systems of movement to activity, maintaining them in a good functional state. This is achieved through the need for sleep, rest, movement.
A special need of this level of the subject of natural relations is the need to maintain the optimal emotional state, which is achieved both through a change in the functional state of the organs of the body, and through the production of certain substances that regulate the emotional state (alcohol, special proteins, hormones). Since emotions participate in the regulation of activities, including providing the experience of the pleasure of successfully completing different activities, enjoyment of the person, and with his help, in animals, can become an independent artificially constructed need, more precisely, a dependence on substances or actions that cause feeling pleasure or a state of euphoria. It refers to dependence on drugs, alcohol, food, sex, gambling, etc. As a result, a specific behavior appears that is not a natural adaptive behavior, although it is formed on the basis of natural behavior and the solution of the natural task of regulating the emotional state. So, many animals with pleasure eat fermented fruit with high alcohol content, reindeer eagerly eat poisonous fungi that cause human (and, probably, animals) hallucinations.
If a rat enters the electrodes into the region of the brain, the irritation of which causes an experience of pleasure, and the pedal closing the supply chain of a weak electric current is taken to the cage, the rat sits for hours on the pedal, systematically closing the chain and thereby irritating the brain, and apparently , gets a pleasant experience - right up to total exhaustion.
We have analyzed three levels of natural needs, many of which are mandatory and are related to the relationship "organism-environment", "species-environment", "subject-environment" ( subject and subject-object ). Each level is characterized by its relations and its set of vital tasks. Before the animals, there were two levels of needs: the level of the organism and the level of the representative (unit) of the species. Animals, including man, have a third level of needs, associated with a new way of adaptation - the behavior of a natural individual. Behavior builds on the metabolism of the body, creating a new way of solving its life problems (providing energy and building materials, maintaining safe conditions, temperature and gas comfort).
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