The needs of the social individual (subject of social relations)
The appearance of labor activity and society transforms a person's life, making him a social being, and a person begins to produce living conditions for himself as an organism and a natural being. Along with individual labor activity, the aggregate activity of society and then of mankind is formed, and now the needs of the natural individual are beginning to be satisfied not only through personal activity, but also through the aggregate activity of society (for example, the work of different people - from the peasant to the steelmaker - allows to bake as a result bread as a food product, including for people who are not involved in the production of agricultural machinery, growing grain, preparing flour and baking bread.)
The development of consciousness leads to the formation of a special reality - a culture with which the formation of man as a spiritual being is connected. There are new human relationships in society: "man-state", "man-nation", "man-party", "man-the space of professional life" etc. Accordingly, new relationships arise between man and his social world, and hence new life tasks or needs.
It should be noted at once that the needs of the social subject (the subject of social relations and activity) differ from the needs of the previous levels in that they are formed only during life in society, can develop and disappear or decrease in intensity and manifestation. All the needs of this level are not mandatory and are formed only when the person is included in certain social relations, and when they leave them - they fade and disappear.
The first layer of such needs is related to the position of a person as a citizen of his country. This needs:
• be accepted by the country as its full-fledged resident;
• have a certain status in the country, region, city, etc .;
• to be a leader (not to be confused with the desire to enter the government to solve their personal problems);
• In the freedom of information;
• in freedom of association;
• in social guarantees from the state.
All these needs are optional, some arise only in some people. They can appear and disappear depending on the social situation in the country and the region.
The second layer of needs is related to the relations within the ethnos. First of all, it is the need for belonging to an ethnos that a person considers his own; this is the recognition of the ethnos and the status in the ethnos. In large ethnic groups these needs are often not manifested. In small ethnic groups such needs are more pronounced and often associated with special periods in the history of the ethnos.
The third layer of the needs of the level of a social individual (subject of social relations) is the needs of a person as a professional worker. This includes the need for acceptance by the professional community, in professional expression and approval, in professional achievement and status, in vocational training.
A special layer of needs is the need for acceptance by a group that a person would like to belong to (group membership), the need for recognition by the group and the desire for high status in the group; the need for communication in the group and between groups.
These strata of needs are related and of the same type in their structure - only the objects of belonging change, which allows us to think about the existence of needs that are manifested when included in various associations (need for belonging, recognition, achievements and status, communication).
At this level, there are needs related to the needs of the natural individual (the subject of natural relations). The first such need is the need for social security. It is clear that, for example, his boss is afraid not because he can physically punish, but because he can change his salary, reprimand, fire. The concept of " social security" also includes ensuring the safety of living in conditions of possible natural and man-made disasters, terrorist acts and wars, etc.
An important requirement of the level of a social individual is the cognitive need, which is formed on the basis of a natural research need. They are often not distinguished in the literature, but these are different needs in their results. The research need is aimed at creating an image of the situation with the identification of an indicative basis for adaptive behavior. The cognitive need is formed in the history of mankind to serve the labor creative activity of man, and therefore its result should be the image of the world with the laws of its organization and functioning.
No less important for a person as a social being is the game need. Assignment of the sociohistorical experience of people's relations and the rules of using human subjects is largely ensured through the child's play, including storyline, role play. In the game, the cognitive need of a person begins to form for the first time, the development of which goes on through intentional instruction in pre-school, school and university institutions.
At the level of the subject of social relations (sublevel of culture), an aesthetic need is formed in perception and creation of the beautiful. The reaction to beauty appears at the level of a natural individual. The attractiveness of partners to reproduction is a biological factor and is therefore encouraged in evolution. In society, based on this natural need for reaction to beauty, a social aesthetic need is created for the creation and perception of the beautiful.
At this level, the problem arises of evaluating oneself by various parameters (self-esteem) and, first of all, the success of the activity. The society begins to control the behavior of people, and the person is forced to learn to be aware of his behavior, his abilities and evaluate them in terms of the success of the activity and the rules of behavior in society.Finally, at the level of a social individual, two purely human needs arise: the need for means of satisfying the needs, and the need for means of satisfying the needs. With the emergence of production and society, the biological means of satisfying the needs of the organism, the species and the subject of natural relations are supplemented by new ways that become leading. The old mechanisms are not canceled, and a tired person can, for example, fall asleep at a lecture, in a bus, in the metro and other places. But normally a person's dream involves a cozy habitual bed with clean linen, a soft pillow under the head, a habitual blanket, in the usual place and at a certain time for sleeping. Hunger can be satisfied with raw vegetables and fruits, unmilled grain, but in norm - this is regular food for hot food, etc. In the society, these methods of satisfying needs become not only habitual, but basic.
New ways of meeting needs require their own special means. For example, satisfying the need for food involves the possession of dishes (plates, pans, cups, mugs), forks, spoons and knives, tables and chairs, tablecloths, dish washing agents, etc. Thermoregulation requires the construction of houses and their heating (and for this construction of furnaces or cogeneration plants), clothes and shoes for the season, umbrellas and other things that ensure a comfortable temperature regime of a person's life. The need to produce these items and tools for people as members of society creates the need of society as a whole and forms the aggregate activity of society that has its own independent tasks that do not coincide with the individual individual tasks of each person.
At the level of the subject of social relations, a special sublevel with special relations of people living in the space of moral or immoral relations can be singled out. We have already said that by moving into this space of life, a person becomes a person and begins to act on the basis of the choice of the moral or immoral consequences of his action or inaction.
The level of personality is characterized by a number of its special needs, the main of which is the search for the meaning of one's own life. Unlike the adaptant, including the social, the personality can not exist without the meaning of life, for the life of the individual is not an adaptation to existing conditions, but the assertion by his actions of the values of his personal life.
The need for a worldview that is interconnected with the meaning of life and represents the development of a cognitive need is also significant. The result of this need is a belief in certain principles of the organization of the world and the place of the person in it.
A person may have a need to live in truth, justice, seek truth and do good or, conversely, consider his opinion as true, wish the people evil and orient himself on these values in his behavior. With the provision of personal comfort, there is a need for personal security, when a person seeks to avoid a choice situation from immoral alternatives.
A person can not exist without freedom of outlook and personal meaning, that is why there is such a personal need, as a desire for freedom. There must also be a need to evaluate yourself from the position of morality accepted by the person as its value.
Maybe we should recognize the presence of one more personal need - the assertion of oneself as an individual. It has already been said that a person is not a static, but a dynamic entity. Being a person is difficult, and people sometimes, and some of them often, get out of this morally inadequate interpersonal space, becoming social adapters for a while, and again return to the space of moral relations, recreating themselves as an acting person.
The proposed classification of human needs and their recruitment abolish existing classifications of needs, often compiled on the basis of a single indicator, which ensures their dichotomy. So, it is customary to allocate natural biological needs and needs to social or sociogenetic (sociogenic) needs. According to another criterion, material and spiritual needs, or objective and functional (sleep, movement, peace) needs are highlighted. Often given simply a list of different needs. For example, physiological (sleep, food, etc.), material (clothing, furniture, car, etc.), cognitive or research, aesthetic, communication needs, leadership, etc. There are more complex classifications: the needs of creation, development, social relations, which include spiritual and moral needs. Widely used in our literature is the classification proposed by A. Maslow, in which an attempt is made to divide the needs of the main ones related to human development, and "needs-conditions" that must be met so that a person can learn and create ("the pyramid of needs" ;).
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