The problem of objectivity and subjectivity of cognition...

The problem of objectivity and subjectivity of cognition

The process of cognition is a complex multi-stage psychic phenomenon of perception, processing and creation of new information. At the same time, the process of cognition can be directed both at the objective world external to the person, and on the process of cognition and the inner world of man (self-knowledge, reflection). Cognitive activity is also characteristic of other highly organized mental types, not just man. Self-knowledge, reflection is a phenomenon that delimits a person from other living beings, defining the human being proper in a person.

Psychological knowledge by its nature is subjective, but that the psychic phenomenon becomes the object of knowledge, its objectification is required. The world and its elements, presented in a substantive way, are accessible to our perception as objective. But our perception in itself has a number of laws that have a subjective character. Perception is a complex mental process, which is determined both by the nature of the perceptual system, and by the features of the sign function of consciousness, by memory. Our previous experience, psychological attitudes, features of attention - all this and many other things affect the perception of the phenomena being studied. But science tries to make the knowable the objective, i.e. independent of the psychological nature of cognition. For psychology, where the cognizer and the cognized are in many ways identical with each other, this question is actualized especially.

The scientific method of cognition helps to find ways of objectifying knowledge about the world. The main methods of obtaining objective knowledge about the world are observation and experiment.

When observing facts and measuring, quantifying, or qualitatively describing observations, a method of objectifying the observed (that is, organizing the way to fix the observed outside our relationship to the subject of observation, which in psychology is not always easy) is important. When observing psychological phenomena, it is not so easy to distinguish between the truth of the observed facts and our interpretation of the nature of the phenomena. For this purpose, the ways of objective fixation of the observed are searched, including in the conditions of the experiment, using various methods and procedures (parametric recording, instrument fixation, etc.). But what is observed in psychology is mainly concerned with external manifestations of mental activity or psychophysiological indicators, i.e. behavior and bodily response. The mental basis of behavior remains largely outside of objective observation.

Verification of the predicted phenomena can be done by experiment. The experiment will create such situations where, under the influence of a controlled variable, a stable consequence of the given action is obtained (reaction, result, manifestation). The reliability of the experiment is achieved by repeating the manifested phenomena on other subjects in a similar situation. But even here psychology finds itself in a difficult situation, since many psychic phenomena are unique and situational in nature, and also have social certainty. In complex psychic manifestations, especially at the level of higher mental functions, in consciousness and self-consciousness, in a system of communication and relationships, it is difficult to isolate such variables that would have stable manifestations under a certain influence, regardless of complex systemic connections with other psychic phenomena, without taking into account the vital and social experience of the subject, his individual characteristics.

The question of the reliability of scientific knowledge in psychology is achieved in many ways by means of "moderate relativism" (relativity) and conscious reductionism (simplification) of a complex system to the link between specific elements of the system or the relationship between specific stimuli and reactions in relatively comparable conditions.

Thus, another way to objectify psychological cognition is to identify stable trends in relatively similar conditions or on comparable samples.

The scientific picture of the world is a system of ideas formed in science about the properties and laws of reality, built as a result of the generalization and synthesis of scientific concepts and principles. In the development of science, knowledge, ideas, concepts are in constant development.

The scientific picture of the world has been repeatedly reconstructed throughout the history of mankind. Each time a definite theoretical model of the description of the world was adopted and steadily used as a basis until it explained the observed facts. At a time when the surrounding world was limited to the immediate habitat and the sensory experience of each person, the scientific picture of the world represented the Earth flat and in the center of the universe. As the accumulation of facts discrediting the previous theory, new theories began to be built. At first they were rejected by society, and their authors were subjected to severe tests, and even death punishments. When the facts became too much and they received some objective, undeniable confirmation, society was forced to accept a new, reconstructed scientific picture of the world. Earth in the view of scientists was now not flat, but spherical, but still in the center of the universe. With the development of methods of cognition that go beyond the limits of direct sensory experience, the scientific picture of the world continued to change. It was recognized that the Earth is not located in the center of the universe, but revolves around the Sun, but the Sun is in the center of the world. With the further development of methods and means of scientific cognition, as well as with the expansion of the possibilities of physical and mathematical modeling, the scientific picture of the world was enriched with new details, and we were already on the edge of the Milky Way Galaxy in the boundless universe. And further, until we have new technical means of cognition and methods of modeling, we will continue to put forward and justify certain versions about the nature of the appearance and development of the universe, our world. And much in the current scientific picture of the world remains at the level of hypotheses. It is important to understand that the scientific picture of the world is not a dogma. It does not have to have a fully completed and completed image. This is a way of describing and explaining the surrounding world, which is developed by science at the moment. And it is the understanding of the boundaries of the scientific picture of the world - that which is not yet known and that can be inadequately described at the moment - is the main engine of scientific knowledge.

The movement of humanitarian knowledge in many respects differs from the natural sciences. The development of humanitarian knowledge in obtaining new data or in the development of a new concept does not always deny previous concepts. It increases the multiplicity of points of view, deepening the details and expanding the variability of interpretations and interpretations of the nature of the phenomena being studied. New concepts often give a new point of view, i.e. a new subjective view of objective phenomena, which is proved or refuted by methods and methods developed within the framework of this concept. Within the framework of another concept, there are other methods and, in connection with this, different results. Humanitarian knowledge is largely specific, because in it the method of cognition largely determines the result, and the initial position of the researcher is the way of interpreting the cause-effect relationships and the development forecast.

thematic pictures

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)