The psychological meaning of myths is Psychoanalysis. Modern deep psychology

The psychological meaning of myths

Jung believed that myths are embedded in the structure of the soul. They contain those forming and guiding elements that determine the spontaneous course of life. But they retain all their significance even where the soul finds meaninglessness. You can and do not perceive them as they are, in their immediate meaning, you just have to state that they exist and act. Jung called them a semantic nucleus and hoped to prove that they serve as an impulse for creating a myth. If this is so, then you can ask: what does it grow out of them in the course of history? The myth of the myths, which determines their specific form, can operate without hindrance in this capacity only in the early Christian era, for only to it are the life experiences and the picture of the world that are characteristic of him.

As critical thinking and rationally reasoned technique enter into force, the myth loses its space, is complicated by theoretical constructs, in order to finally completely separate from them. Western culture survived the classical form of this process already in the era of Greek sophistry. Since then, spiritual life has been determined primarily by the mind, which - least consciously - relies only on the facts of experienced knowledge and the logic of their comprehension. Myth is reduced to the level of fairy tales and fables and on this path is increasingly treated as something frivolous and close to the game. Only the region of the soul, which is controlled not by a reflexive thought and by a conscious desire, is seriously perceived by them, but what is deeper is an elusive unconscious. It is from here that myths penetrate into the fabric of being. As it is established, the influence of the unconscious is most noticeable in dreams and mental disorders; It must be recognized, however, that it captures the whole structure of the personality, influencing the fate of the individual .

Jung developed another concept - archetypes & quot ;. He believed that the individual unconscious serves as a historical variation of the vast collective unconscious. It relies on the infrastructure inherent in the whole human family. Unknowable by the direct way, the collective unconscious manifests itself in the works of man, in religious myths, in works of art. It can become the subject of a kind of archeology of the soul.

Freud in a short essay showed that Leonardo da Vinci his whole life was influenced by the fact that he has two mothers. Two mothers, in other words, a double origin - a real fact in the case of Leonardo - it played an important role in the life of other artists. Benvenuto Cellini, for example, also uncritically tormented the idea of ​​double origin. According to Jung, this is a mythological idea. For many legendary heroes we find a double origin. Here comes out an ancient, primordial representation, spread all over the world and is one of the mysteries of the general history of the human spirit. It does not belong to the field of individual memories.

In each individual case, along with individual reminiscences, we have the ancestral images inherited from our ancestors, as they were called by Jacob Burchardt. This inherently inherent in our brain ability to generate images in which is expressed what has always been. The fact of the hereditary transfer of this ability is explained, according to Jung, as essentially an incredible phenomenon, as repeated in the same form throughout the land, legendary subjects and themes.

In Jung's interpretation, the most ancient primordial images represent the most general, the most remote, the most profound thoughts of all mankind as a whole. They are both feelings and thoughts. They are endowed with an independent life, similar to the life of partial souls, a mention of which can be found in those philosophical and gnostic systems that are based on the perception of the unconscious as a source of knowledge, for example in the anthroposophic science of the spirit of R. Steiner. The images of angels, archangels, thrones, dominions, cherubim and seraphim from the heavenly hierarchy of Dionysius the Areopagite are engendered by the contemplation of archetypes living in comparatively independent life or the dominants of the collective unconscious.

The archetype (from the Greek arche - the ancient, first, the beginning, originally a single substance, the original principle, unchanging and unsuitable in a series of phenomena) - the antecedent, the primary image, which refers to the earliest discoveries of the soul. Jung called the archetypes simple and functional images that exist in the collective unconscious. He derived this notion from repeatedly repeated observations that the world literature is determined by those myths and tales that contain repetitive motifs. The same motives we meet in fantasies, dreams, insane delirium. They stem from an unconscious archetype in itself, an unconscious preform that seems to refer to the inherited structure of the psyche and, therefore, can be detected as a spontaneous phenomenon.

A person inherits these prototypes from his ancestral past, which includes him as human, or the laundry, or animals, ancestors. These are not just names or even philosophical concepts, they are the moments of life itself, integrally connected with a living person by emotional ties. The archetype is the basic element of the perciplet collectivity of the unconscious, a kind of arsenal, the treasure trove of the most valuable and deepest human experience. Archetypes are not determined in content, but only formally. Substantially it is possible to determine, according to Jung, only the prototype and then only when it is realized and, therefore, is filled with the material of conscious experience. Its shape, on the other hand, can be compared with the axial structure of the crystal, which in a certain way predetermines the formation of a crystal in the initial solution, but does not exist materially at the same time. Its material existence is manifested only in the method and form of crystallization of ions, and then molecules. The archetype itself is an empty formal element. Therefore, they are inherited by Jung, not representations, but forms, which can also be defined only formally. Similarly, it is impossible to detect the presence of an archetype in itself, nor can the existence of instincts be detected until they manifest themselves in something concrete.

Jung warned that for a moment you can not indulge in the illusion that the archetype can be explained once and for all and deal with it. Even the best attempt to explain the archetype is only a more or less successful translation of it into figurative language. The doctrine of archetypes is related to Jung with a symbol that also functions as an element of the unconscious and is destroyed when trying to comprehend experience. So, he refers to the destruction of the ancient pantheon of the gods under the influence of analytical thinking.

The archetype always retains its meaning and function. It does not collapse, but only changes, revealing itself in new forms at new stages of history. Jung notes that in our time instead of Zeus's eagle or bird Rock is a plane, instead of fighting with the dragon - a railway accident. In this sense, the archetype is universal, universal. Being the structural elements of the so-called collective unconscious (the psychic experience of previous generations), the archetype is in the bud of all mental processes and experiences.

The archetype is a concept that is difficult to present specifically, the impact of archetypes is manifested in the mind as universal patterns, or motifs that emerge from the collective unconscious and are the basis of religions, myths, legends and fairy tales. In the human psyche, these images arise in dreams and visions.

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