Generally, some kinds of shocking activities, such as sudden crashes, various disasters, and physical or mental assaults and abuses create very harmful damage and mental problems to people. Like this the appearance of physical and emotional symptoms of brought on by unmanageable calamities and incidents is called ¿½¿½PTSD(Posttraumatic Stress Disorder)¿½¿½. Recently, because of the radical changes of environment around the kids, exposure to possibilities of various occurrences and happenings are increasing. Because of this, the speed of children who have problems with PTSD increased.
Actually, the main category of stress that can cause PTSD in children is abuse. According to some research, 3. 85 million children are involved in abusive situations each year. Of those mistreatment cases, 65 percent are overlook, 18 percent are physical mistreatment, 10 % are sexual mistreatment, and 7 percent are psychological abuse(United States Department of Veterans Affairs' Country wide Centre for PTSD, 2007). Each kind of mistreatment has lasting results on the survivors. Out of this perspective, this paper will cover the reason for PTSD in children who face certain sorts of abuses: university violence, domestic maltreatment, and sexual maltreatment. Children could be easily subjected to many of these conditions. The symptoms will be brought up mainly in this paper but evaluation and treatment for PTSD in children also will get.
PTSD in children
1. The difference between men and women and children
In general, don't assume all adult suffers from PTSD after considering an injury. However, in children, the rate of event of PTSD was high(S. J. Kim&H. Kim, 2000, p. 79). Corresponding to researches, almost all of the kids in abusive situations demonstrated symptoms of PTSD. On the other hand, using the same process of assessment, no more than 57% of people who suffered with injuries showed symptoms of PTSD(Fredrick, 1985; S. J. Kim & H. Kim, 2000, p. 89). Also, the characteristics of PTSD in men and women and children are different from one another. The cognitive and interpersonal talents of children are not fully developed and they are inexperienced when expressing their situation and dealing with the symptoms. Therefore, the symptoms of children shouldn't be thought as the same with adults¿½¿½. Unlike people, children can¿½¿½t forget the injury what they experience and also don¿½¿½t refuse the situation. Their symptoms of PTSD could also appear immediately after surprising events(S. J. Kim & H. Kim, 2000, p. 80). As a result of these circumstances, the researches studying PTSD in children have been increasing.
According for some research, the key risk factors of PTSD in children are related these factors: intimate abuse, neglects, emotional and physical abuse, domestic assault, divorce of parents, and history of mental disease of parents (Buist, 1998). When children experienced traumatic situations prior to the harm, it increased the harm rate of PTSD in children. Especially, the most stunning occurrences to children are physical maltreatment and sexual abuse. The causes related to the surroundings of children have to do with the support from the family and coverage from their parents. It affects the development of PTSD in children. Quite simply, the kids, who are backed and secured by family before an injury, showed slight symptoms of PTSD. Inversely, the kids who experienced divorce or mental disease of the parents had an increased chance and more severe situations of PTSD(K. E. Han, 2005; A. K. Park, 2008)
When children have PTSD symptoms, they could have psychological and behavioral problems. Children show anxiety and uncontrolled dread. That nervousness may be the source of the PTSD. Some children and teenagers develop depression, a state where they feel hopeless or helpless. Also, they may feel isolated. Children could blame themselves for the distressing event. Their self-esteem can be influenced plus they can have problems trusting others. In other case, children and young adults may become ambitious and angry following the their trauma(Gromisch, 2010). Behavioral problems took place while suffering from PTSD, like self-destructive habit. Sexually inappropriate actions will appear in a few children, particularly if the kids experienced sexual maltreatment. Some children with PTSD may have drug abuse (alcoholic beverages or drugs) issues while trying to cope with their mental issues, but it worsens their symptoms. The symptoms of PTSD can differ in each age group. For school-aged children, they may repeat the traumatic experiences while playing, such as performing out. On the other hand, teenagers become more impulsive or hostile because of this of PTSD(U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs' Country wide Centre for PTSD, 2007).
Assessment of PTSD can include ways of collecting information about the conditions (ex. family members and other up to date adults) of children and appearance of physical symptoms, mental health and educational tests, the use of PTSD scales(McNally, R, 1991; Bruce D, 1994) and semi-structured interviews. As with individuals, symptoms of years as a child trauma set up a spectrum. While many children might not meet up with the more strict PTSD diagnostic criteria, they may have significant post-traumatic symptoms, as well as internalizing and externalizing behavior disorders. DSM-III and DSM-III-R conditions have been used to acquire information for school-aged children and adolescents whereas diagnosis of younger children depends on direct observations and information of caretakers(Bruce D, 1994).
PTSD of children could be cured. Early detection and intervention is vital and can decrease the severeness of symptoms, improve the child's normal progress and development and improve the standard of living experienced by children or adolescents with PTSD.
Treatment should be based on a comprehensive analysis of the child and family. Treatment recommendations can include cognitive behavioral remedy for the child. The concentration of cognitive behavioral therapy is to help the child or adolescent learn skills to manage their anxiety also to help him/her excel at the situations that contributed to their PTSD. Some children may be also helpful from treatment with antidepressant or antianxiety medication to help them feel calmer. The child or adolescent's recovery from PTSD is very variable and dependent on the kid or adolescent's inside strengths, coping skills and resiliency. Recovery is also affected by the support available within the family environment. Parents play a important and supportive role in any treatment process.
And they are the examples of specific treatments could be helpful to treat children.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy(CBT). CBT is a successful approach for treating children. One kind of CBT is called Trauma-Focused CBT(TF-CBT). TF-CBT is the procedure of talking with children about his / her memory space of the stress. TF-CBT also includes ways to help lower the worries and stress(U. S. Section of Veterans Affairs' Country wide Center for PTSD, 2007). The remedy may involve learning to change thoughts or values about the trauma that are wrong or untrue. The kid can be educated at his / her own pace which allows those to relax while they are thinking about the stress.
Psychological first help/crisis management. Psychological First Aid(PFA) has been used as one of treatments for school-aged children and teens which have been under mistreatment(U. S. Section of Veterans Affairs' Country wide Middle for PTSD, 2007). PFA can be used in classes and traditional options. The role of PFA is related to give comfort and support and let us children know that their reactions are normal.
Play therapy. Play therapy may be used to treat young children with PTSD who can¿½¿½t immediately deal with the stress(U. S. Office of Veterans Affairs' National Centre for PTSD, 2007). From this viewpoint, the therapist uses game titles, drawings, and other solutions to help children process their traumatic memories.
Medications. Drugs are also prescribed for some children with PTSD. However, because of the some lack of research in this area, it is too early to evaluate the effectiveness of medication therapy.
Definition of Children Abuse
Child abuse is the physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or overlook of children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) establish child maltreatment as any group of behaviors of payment or omission by the father or mother or other caregiver that results in injury, potential for injury, or risk of harm to a child. Most of child maltreatment occurs in a child's home, yet others developing in the organizations, such as academic institutions or communities the child getting together with.
Various jurisdictions have developed their own definitions of what constitutes child mistreatment for the purposes of getting rid of children from their family and/or prosecuting a legal charge. According to the Journal of Child Misuse and Disregard, child maltreatment is "any recent action or failure to do something on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in fatality, serious physical or mental harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, an take action or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious damage¿½¿½(Herrenkohl, R. C, 2005).
Relationship between PTSD and Abuse
There is a connection between PTSD and mistreatment because the withdrawal is associated numerous forms of maltreatment. Individuals who are abused or who observed the situation of maltreatment may push away thoughts of what's developing, and these submerged experiences will come away. While there are various kinds of abuse, including physical, verbal, and mental, the end result of most people who keep the mistreatment is emotional problems. Being experienced abusive act, damaging relations mainly causes disorientation or a sense that what is happening may not be real.
Unfortunately, these detached emotions may be expanded to the areas of life. Long after situations have occurred, PTSD and maltreatment are still connected together because a person may be unable to move forward either from the trauma or into what is considered normal day-to-day decision making and actions. In ways, PTSD and misuse are as related as two different people may maintain an abusive relationship or as patients may be at the hands of someone or something that may destroy them. When a separation occurs, the stress and post-trauma state of mind often may need retraining through remedy. Any form of abuse can result in some isolation either in thought or in relations with the world of outside the house, and this parting adds to the interconnection between PTSD and maltreatment by almost nourishing back again on itself. People might find a different certainty inside their mind about why something happened and how they could have added to it. Misuse often happens in isolation, and the injury may grow for the reason that same kind of isolation. Without outdoors point of view and healthy replacing thoughts, the pattern can go on for a long time(Schechter D. S. , et al, 2007).
Main types of children abuse caused PTSD
Several researches proved high frequency of school violence. In Korea, the range of children who were exposed school violence was reported to be about 14. 1%-58. 8%. Far away, about 25% school years children experienced university violence(S. W. Shin, et al. 2000; J. S. Lee & Y. S. Lee, 2006). The representative types of university assault are physical assault, battle, group deal with, ostracization, rip-off, and threatening.
The school era children who have been experiencing school assault demonstrated symptoms such as fear, depression, lack of self-regard, and worries about loss of life or damage. These symptoms(especially those connected to PTSD symptoms) have bad impacts on the formation of a child¿½¿½s character. Also, it brings about anxiety, disbelief, destruction of cognitive capability, and change of personality(Green, et al. 1991; J. S. Lee & Y. S. Lee, 2006).
Coping with Abused Children
Abuse almost everywhere is a reason for concern throughout the world and it becomes much more serious when this mistreatment has experience in the colleges in the form of school assault. Since, this mistreatment is very directly related with the youngsters this must be cured more carefully as mishandling of these cases might influence the subconscious development of the kids. Violence in college sometimes appears in virtually all the schools nowadays. This issue is seen more in the children when they are in their adolescent era as they go through the major changes of these life and the youngsters have to be comprehended and dealt tolerance.
The entire university needs to are a team to cure such children and proper strategy should be made either by using a counselor or a psychologist to help the kid come out of his situation and begin behaving as a normal child. If the kid is not dealt carefully he might start feeling rejected and this might destroy his circumstance and decrease the probability of his improving.
If the class partner notices any type of unusual patterns from some of his friend or peer he should directly watch him first and then immediately take it to the notice of any of his professors or the institution regulators. Also he should not stop interacting with the child thinking that he might harm him as he could them feel that the other child is trying to avoid him and this can increase his anger and can result in hatred towards other child too, rather, speak with the child and make understand and realize that whatever is certainly going on in his thoughts is not right and he might have misunderstood the individual.
One must recognize that the violent tendencies of a kid is not a 1 day problem neither it includes occurred credited to a particular¿½¿½s day happenings or incidents, alternatively it's been taking place his brain for quite sometime therefore to get the items off from his mind will also take the time and so one needs to be very patient while dealing with a violent child. It will continually be the combined work of the parents and the school specialists to help a violent child lead a healthy and normal life.
Domestic violence includes physical mistreatment, sexual abuse, mental abuse, and abuse of property and even domestic pets(Ganley, 1989; Volpe, 1996). Experience of this form of assault makes people feel a feeling of vulnerability, helplessness, and in acute cases, horror.
Domestic assault is common and occurs among all socioeconomic organizations. Actually, over 3 million children are at risk of exposure to parental violence every year (Carlson, 1984; Volpe, 1996). Therefore, this form of assault can be viewed as a serious sociable issue. More than half of the school-aged children who experience domestic violence display specialized medical levels of nervousness or PTSD(Graham-Bermann, 1994; Volpe, 1996). With no treatment, these children are in significant risk for delinquency, drug abuse, college drop-out, and issues in their own romantic relationships.
Especially younger children, generally do not have the ability to adequately point out their feelings verbally. As a result, they point out these emotions through behaviors. For instance, children could become withdrawn, non-verbal, and show regressive conducts such as clinging and whining. In addition they may show eating and sleeping complications, attentiveness problems, generalized nervousness, and physical discomfort(Volpe, 1996)
Unlike younger children, pre-adolescent children have increased ability to express negative emotions(i. e. , to verbalize). Subjects within this age group show symptoms such as a loss of desire for communal activities, low self-concept, withdrawal or avoidance of peer relationships, rebelliousness and oppositional-defiant behavior in school settings. Additionally it is common to see temper tantrums, irritability, frequent fights at university or between siblings, lashing out at things, treating household pets cruelly or abusively, threatening peers or siblings using violence and attempts to get attention by hitting something, kicking, or choking peers and/or family members.
Coping with abused children
Referrals to the correct school personnel may be the first step in assisting the child or teen in need of support(Volpe, 1996). When there exists suggestion of home violence with a student, consider involving the psychologists in school, social worker, guidance counselor and/or a university administrator. Although circumstances bordering each case are various each other, suspicion of child abuse must be reported to the kid protection organization which in local area by instructors and other university personnel. Also, in some cases, a connection with the local police department may also be necessary for this. When in doubt, consult with university associates. If the child expresses a desire to talk, provide them with an chance to communicate their thoughts and emotions. Furthermore to talking, they may be also encouraged to write in a journal, get, or paint; they are all viable means for facilitating appearance in younger children.
Adolescents are usually more abstract in their thinking and generally have better developed verbal talents than youngsters(Volpe, 1996). It could be helpful for men and women who work with teenagers to cause them to become discuss their concerns without insisting on this expression. Being attentive in a warm, non-judgmental, and genuine manner is often comforting for patients and may be an important first step in their seeking further support. When appropriate, specific and/or group counselling is highly recommended at university if the average person is amenable. Recommendations for counselling(e. g. family counseling) beyond the school should be produced to the family as well. Providing a set of names and phone numbers to contact in case there is a serious turmoil are a good idea.
The sexual abuse of children not only damages their self-concepts and cause depressive disorder, trend, grieve, solitude, but also results in serious and long-term changes of their behaviors like exhibiting sexual behaviors inappropriate for their get older, feeling suicidal, habit disorders, and eating disorders. It brings about diverse aftereffects in children throughout their process of progress. Also, it could cause difficulties to seem after becoming a grown-up when carrying out tasks such as parents, maintaining conjugal relations and socio-economic(K. J. Hong, 1997; J. S. Lee & Y. S. Lee, 2006).
The children who experienced erotic abuse screen severe symptoms in areas of emotion, social relation, behavior, learning, and sex. For the psychological part, serious stress and anxiety, depression, helplessness, pity, guilty, rage are often reported(Fergussion et al. , 1996; Mennen & Meadow, 1994). From the viewpoint of public connection, children show alienation and isolation from people and society(Alexander, et al. , 1998). Eating disorders, physical symptoms, truancy, working abroad, abuse of alcohol or drugs also made an appearance as part of the PTSD symptoms(H. S. Kwan, 2002 ; J. S. Lee & Y. S. Lee, 2006).
Actually, the symptoms of intimate abuses appeared in a different way in line with the age. Preschoolers revealed anxiety, nightmares, basic PTSD, internalizing and externalizing issues, and improper sexual behaviors. School-aged children experienced worries, neurotic and standard mental illness, hostility, nightmares, college problems, hyperactivity, and regressive manners. Adolescents showed unhappiness, suicidal manners, or self-injurious manners. The common symptoms of all age are nightmares, despair, withdrawn habits, neurotic mental ailments, aggression, regressive behaviors, and learning impairment(Kathleen, Linda, and David, 1993).
Coping with abused children
If a child says they has been abused, try to stay them quiet. Reassuring the kid the misuse is not his/her fault. Also, realizing that the reality which people imagine him/her and they're proud of his/her telling of misuse. Then, Children need the recovery of their mental health and they have to meet medical expert right away. Many locations have child advocacy centers where a children and their family can get help. These centers interview children and family members in a very sensitive, warm place. They are able to help caregivers record the abuse to legal government bodies and give a medical examiner and therapist skilled in child intimate abuse.
Children can get over sexual mistreatment and continue to live a life good lives. The best predictor of recovery is support and love from other main caregiver. Therefore, the role of caregivers is really important along the way of coping abused children It is very hard to accept that a child has been experienced intimate misuse. Caregivers often make a mistake in assisting abused child by responding in certain unhelpful ways. For example, they cannot provide support when you are overwhelmed with the own emotions. They shouldn¿½¿½t downplay the abuse(e. g. "it wasn't that bad"), but also do not have extreme anxieties related to the mistreatment(e. g. "my child won't be safe again"). You won't help children if caregivers pressure them to speak, or if they blame the kid. Getting remedy for caregivers can help them deal with their own emotions toward the misuse. Then it makes better the coping capability of caregivers providing support to abused child.
To sum up, children who experienced institution, domestic, and intimate abuse exhibited the vulnerability to PTSD. A lot of the children who had been in abusive situations shown the PTSD symptoms. However, it is very hard to learn the seriousness of children with PTSD because the kids lack the ability to describe and realize their conditions in comparison with adults do. Therefore, along the way of treatment, proper approach to assessment should be used through a viewpoint of multidimensional platform which could integrate the many intervening parameters that modify the consequences of maltreatment.
Also, the fundamental solutions, for help children who've been abused or are being abused, need to be found. Through the study, it was found that there are no such resolved treatments for abused children. There are so many treatment theories for these people, but there are little things can actually practical and helpful to children. Therefore, the organized and fundamental treatments need for abused children. As stated before, the time of institution children and children are actually important to whole life of individuals. If children who abused by others can't be treated systematically by others, it could make their entire life destroyed. Finally, in other words, the arranged solution is necessary the correct treatments considering their physical, mental, and environmental situations in terms of families, schools, and societies. Useful treatment is not only need for abused children also importance of ¿½¿½attention¿½¿½ dependence on children as a significant influence on them. Every procedure for coping abused children needs the caregivers good care. Also, children who received warm attention before or after abusive situations resulted in the low possibility of being exposed to PTSD. Actually, the reactions of parents have appreciable affects on action of children coping with abusive situations and memories(S. J. Kim & H. Kim, 2000, p. 81).
Therefore, the caregivers of abused children should pay attention to the way the child is coping. They need to listen to the children in a warm, non-judgmental, and genuine manner. In short, the circumstances have to be manufactured in which children could be cared properly. Also, it is important to make safe and proper circumstance which children would not be abused. In this process, the children¿½¿½s caregiver attention is very required. Caregivers always should be listened to expressing of children and know very well what they wanted. Because of this, the continuing research of treatment of PTSD in children as a fundamental solution can reduce the occurrences of PTSD triggered by abusive situations.
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