The research method

Abstract

This article is a listing of the research method, Systematic Review. You will discover four facet s, a short intro of the organized review, including the features, the steps of the strategy, the dialogue of some steps, and the final outcome from the above research plus some vista for the systematic review.

Introduction

There are several sorts of research methods, and all of them has their own features and function to utilize to fit their research design. For example, Pavlov's dog, a vintage behavioral test, scientist design a predicament in the laboratory and try hard to control the varieties to get the answer of the hypothesis. However, in a few conditions, experimental design ways may well not so appropriate in using to this program, for example, if the research is directed to collation the sees of others' study outcomes, tried out to find a remedy that is adaptive to every quarrels, then organized review method will be a good choice to select.

Systematic review method, which aspires to mix, compares, or do a synthesis to the study outcomes. A couple of two reasons to use the technique, is that the restriction of traditional review, and the other is the added ability brought by the formation of multiple studies. It's different from the review, which is try to combine two or more researches in a given matter, as it comes to organized review, it's more specific, detailing, structural under this issue. In any other case, meta-analysis method is also used in systematic review analysis sometimes, but it's only a part of the method, or a kind of skills, they are not the same affair, compared to meta-analysis, systematic review content qualitative and quantitative results. Instead, meta-analysis research is a specific statistical strategy to evaluate the review final results.

It's useful that organized reviews has some advantages and surmount some restriction in some way, just like, there are a few limits in traditional review, for case, the narrative reviews might just illustrate the literatures however, not so strategy and structural, SR can increase the vitality of the question through the evidences from the studies, and it can summaries the available information in a more structural way.

Method

According to the Handoll and Smith's assortment of the organized review, they point out the procedure which is basic guideline to research this research method, title, protocol, sources, search strategy, opportunity and filtering the literature, collecting and extracting the data, assessing the grade of studies, meta-analysis, demonstration, speaking about the review findings, and drawing the conclusion.

First, the title, it's necessary a specific and clear description of issue or question to process systematic review. Clear description can not only help experts ensure the well worth of the question, but also prevent the duplication and verifying the genuine and achievable, If the propose is specific and explicit, the strategy of the source researching work might be easier than unclear theme. Then, process. To allow final outcome achieve the analysts' goal in the organized review approach to the research, process play an important role in choose the literature or referrals, that is, depending on the experts' need on the studies, to add or exclude what they want or what's the main to the research, and in the process, experiment methods is a great point in the books selected, for example, now this issue is "depression and commit suicide, what's the key factor associate these two items?", that is, the strategy in this matter might be striving to find out the referrals that include the correlative statistic skills or so on to discover the romance between depression and suicidal patterns. Source, identifying sources would be the next step after formulate the protocol. The main purpose of the organized review is to create a professional medical decision platform on the evidence resources, so when the experts consider about the database of the recommendations, maybe some medical databases, like MEDLINE and CINAHL(medical, health, and medical databases), Cancerlit(subject matter databases), and Cochrane Library(databases of reviews), and so on. The above-mentioned directories might be helpful when experts required. You can find other ways to locate the data pools, through keywords, like the author name whose research theme is appropriate of the experts, or some comparative establishments that their job is appropriate to the topic, like if this issue is about the wellbeing of normal life to the women with breast tumor, researcher might can find the research in the local hospital databases or think it is from the breasts cancer centre.

Next, search strategy, as there spoken before, search strategy rely on a specific topic. If the clear propose shows out, experts can distinct in what should be included or what should be excluded. Range and filtering the literature, as researchers specify an explicit question, the task of literature selecting become easier. To ensure the domination of the reviews is corrected; reviewers have to explain more detail about the topic, like the demography, terms, specific intervention and so on. Collecting and extracting the data, followed the question the experts have, collecting relate articles and taking into consideration the title, methods of the articles, extracting these items directly. Cochrane Collaboration will be useful when research workers collecting and extracting the info. Next, assessing the quality of studies, after collecting the info, the steps follow it is the fact reading. To give attention to emphasis on the area of the studies that analysts think it's ideal for this issue, reading the studies play an important role. The articles are chose for increasing the validity of the study summary and these resources must relate tightly to the question. However, a checklist must be helpful in evaluating the studies, to prevent the situation that some important info missed or overlooked.

Meta-analysis, to combine all the info, analysts needs the statistical strategy to comprehensive the literature. As the suggestion from Mulrow, statistical analysis is to increase the power and accuracy of quotes of treatment result and vulnerability risk. You will discover two items of meta-analysis method has to remember, is noted if the result of the studies portrayed the "effect measure", the other is the fact if the literatures relevant one another to produce a meaningful estimate. Demonstration the result from meta-analysis handling or the reviews will include some points, like, followed the review questions, the conclusions bottom part on the evidence, and the grade of the data. Either the effect from meta-analysis, presentation also including examined research in computer-searchable format. Some numbers or comparative furniture also can make good help in presenting the outcomes of the studies. Characters or desks will allow reviews clear and structural in the organized review.

Here involves the final element of the systematic review, discussing the review results and drawing summary, researchers in the final part have expressing their comments and summary of their finding in the complete program, and the restriction of the analysis or what's the vista of the future research.

Discussion

The main important question should follow the P. I. C. O. rule, which is, P means inhabitants, the question should include the particular individuals, it can't be general. I signifies intervention, there should be an independent changing to operate the study, followed the treatment to search the resources. C is the contrast, just like test, which likewise have control group and main worried group. O means outcome, the title will include the expect from the researchers like the hypothesis, for example, research workers may suppose a situation that after intervention exactly what will happen, like increase some behaviors or reduce the blood circulation pressure after specific coping skill. There's a journal that use the organized review method, the name is "Clinical and cost-effectiveness of new and rising solutions for localized prostate cancer tumor: a systematic review. ", the populace of this analysis is the individual with prostate tumors, the intervention is that the new and rising technologies, the compare group is the standard people or the patient with the prostate cancers still cured in traditional way, and the outcome is aimed by the specialized medical and cost-effectiveness(S. Hummel, S. Paisley, at al. 2003).

When it comes to select the books that good to the reviewers, the Jadad Scale may be a much better way to help analysts in selecting the literatures. A couple of three questions content in this scoring system, "Was the study randomized/appropriate?", "Was the analysis two times blind/ appropriate?", "Description of attrition rates?", all the three questions are 5 factors scale, the level of the credit scoring higher the best of the decision, it signify that the literature has the value to use in the study. There may be another point of the study have to concern, that is, if the evidences are homogeneity or heterogeneity, homogeneity evidences will increase the ability of the main question, but the heterogeneity studies will make some problems to the research purpose.

There are some useful tools for concluding a systematic review, is the PRISMA, which complete name is Preferred Confirming Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, the PRISMA assertion consist of a list of guidelines to let the researchers arrive the goal of their analysis. The Cochrane Collaboration, the aim of the institution is made for the medical evidences centered and improving medical care system, and then for researchers who want to do systematic reviews. You will discover advantages of the organized review and the process of the technique, researchers also can consist an organization from the establishment to do a same topic for collecting the info.

Conclusions

Systematic review method, as known as analysis, is different from traditional review and meta-analysis method. Organized review is more strenuous and structural to synthesis the studies than narrative review, and compared to meta-analysis, this technique includes both qualitative and volumes' research styles, but meta-analysis is more concern about the statistical methodological way to combine the data or the studies, in the other hands, meta-analysis research can be isolated but also see it as a part of the systematic review, especially when the research is required to use the quantities way to continue the study.

Compared to other experimental design, Systematic review method has its own predominance, for example, if it's a long-term plan, like the study of the appearance deviation of disease from the principal stage to the finish with Alzheimer's patient, it may take quite a while and cost lots of money to do the study, however, if use the systematic review to do the study, there might not exactly a great deal disburse.

Following this program of doing the organized review, researchers can find that this method can not only create a structural protocol, but also include all the information that reviewers required. The most important point of the systematic review is the question from the reviewer, as mentioned, the P. I. C. O. guideline is accompanied by the researchers to get started on a research in this technique, and as this article release, a particular and distinction question will play an important role in the whole study, since it will results the course of the reason, and the facet of the books collecting.

As previously offered, there are some institutions for helping researchers doing the systematic review, like the Cochrane Collaboration, based on the purpose of improving the health treatment system or medical status, providing the resource to the researchers to study, which includes progressed to help put together, maintain, and disseminate the use in systematic review with health relate research. The Campbell Cooperation is also the institution for supporting reviewers in systematic review, the goal of them is similar with the Cochrane Collaboration, also based on the data to clarify what helps or harms. The other similar institution is Joanna Briggs institute, and it's a place for promoting and promoting researchers in organized review. They will work in the prominent of medical, medical and allied health experts, clinicians, academics and quality management.

According to this article from Make meals at al. in 1997, the continuing future of the technique may be improve the research's quality and the worthiness, presentation forms will more user-friendly for the providers and patients. Make the bond more firmly between organized reviews outcome and the scientific decisions.

Reference

  • Berkeley Systematic Reviews Group. Constrained from http://www. medepi. net/meta/
  • PRISMA, TRANSPARENT REPORTING of SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS and META-ANALYSES. Limited from http://www. prisma-statement. org/index. htm
  • THE CAMPBELL COLLABORATION. Constrained from http://www. campbellcollaboration. org/systematic_reviews/index. php
  • The Cochrane Collaboration. Restricted from http://www. cochrane. org/index. htm
  • Critical Review Advisory Group. Advantages to Systematic Reviews. Institution for Health And Related Research(ScHARR). 1996.
  • Deborah J. Make meals, Cynthia D. Mulrow, R. Brian Haynes. Organized Reviews: Synthesis of Best Proof FOR clinical Decisions. Annals of Internal Treatments. 126(5), 376-380(1997).
  • H. H. G. Handoll, A. F. Smith. How to perform a systematic review. Current Anaesthesia & Critical Attention. 15, 227-234(2004).
  • S. Hummel, S. Paisley, A. Morgan at al. . Clinical and cost-effectiveness of new and growing technologies for early localized prostate tumor: a systematic review, Health Technology Evaluation, 7(33)(2003).
  • S. Green. Organized reviews and meta-analysis. Singapore Med J. 46(6), 270-274(2005).

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