The role of neurohumoral regulation in the process of adaptation...

The role of neurohumoral regulation in the process of adaptation of the organism to environmental conditions

Parallel development of regulatory systems has led to the formation of two independent systems, complementing each other and capable of both emergency and fine lengthy regulation. Both these systems - nervous and humoral, or otherwise endocrine, carrying out neurohumoral regulation, play an important role in the processes of adaptation of the organism to environmental conditions.

Under the influence of various extreme factors, both physical (heat, cold, trauma), and mental (danger, conflict, joy), the body generates a nonspecific neurohormonal reaction of the organism, i.e. so-called stress .

G. Selye (1974) named stressors , and the body of changes occurring in the body under the influence of stressors - adaptation syndrome.

Scientists identify over 20 types of stress, for example, emotional, social, hypokinetic, reproductive, vaccine, medicinal, infectious, food, transportation, hypoxic, pain, temperature, light, noise, etc. In the development of the adaptation syndrome, four phases are distinguished:

* alarm (activation);

* resistance (compensation);

• depletion (decompensation);

• Recovery.

The severity of the adaptation syndrome depends on the strength of the influencing factors and on the functional state of many physiological systems, as well as on the behavior of the animal. So, for example, a stressor for a dog can be fright, overstrain during training, a change of the owner, the appearance of a new dog or a new member of the family, a change of residence, etc. And the same factor for one animal does not play any role, and for another it can turn out to be the strongest stressor. As stressors, both negative and positive impacts can occur.

At the same time, without any level of stress, no active activity is possible. Stress can be not only harmful, but also beneficial for the body, it mobilizes its capabilities, increases resistance to negative effects (infections, blood loss, etc.), can lead to the alleviation and even the complete disappearance of many somatic diseases. At the same time, stress resulting from excessive intensity of the stressor factor or due to inadequate reaction of the hormonal system at any, including weak effect of factors, reduces the resistance of the organism, causing the appearance and deterioration of the course of many diseases.

Behavioral reactions to a stressful situation are of great importance for the nature of the consequences of stress. Active search for ways to change the stress situation contributes to the stability of the body and does not lead to the development of diseases. Refusal of active search leads to the development of a phase of exhaustion and in severe cases can lead the body to death. Indicator of these types of behavior and an important mechanism for their regulation is the level of catecholamines in the brain. Thus, the neurohumoral system also determines the nature of the body's response to stress.

If the population density increases, the degree of competition between its members for territory, food, etc. increases. The number of social contacts, including negative ones, between animals increases. As a result, they have an increase in the signs of the adaptation syndrome, the level of corticosteroids in the blood increases, the adrenals hypertrophy, the immune system is destroyed, which is primarily manifested in the reproduction processes. The embryonic mortality increases, which reduces the number of litters, the lactation process is disrupted, which leads to the death of suckling young animals. The most susceptible to stress individuals inhibited the processes of spermatogenesis and ontogeny, and they fall out of reproduction. In addition, the population increases the number of diseases that are a direct consequence of stress, including diseases of the cardiovascular and digestive systems. Reducing the immune status makes animals less protected from infectious diseases. If the population does not have individuals capable of resisting stress, then the entire population may completely die. By selecting to promote the survival of individuals more resistant to its effects, stress can lead to a change in the genetic structure of the population. Thus, stress plays both a negative, destructive, and positive, constructive role and can be considered as one of the powerful mechanisms of natural selection.

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