The subject principle of classification of sciences on the basis...

Objective principle of classification of sciences on the basis of differentiation of human properties as an object of cognition

Man as an object of knowledge is the subject of all spiders. This is predetermined by its properties: parametric, physical, chemical, biological, mental, social and produced from them as a result of subjective human activity. As a material object, it is measured by spatial and temporal parameters. Measurement refers to the problems of mathematical science, which was transformed when studying a person in anthropometry and mathematical psychology. The properties of a person's movement fall into the subject area of ​​physics, psychophysics and psychophysiology. The chemical properties of the "living body juices" are the subject of biochemistry, pharmaceutics, psychophysiology and medicine. Life systems of the human body assimilate the diversity of biological properties that are the subject of biological science and psychosomatics. Psychosomatics - a direction in medicine (psychosomatic medicine) and psychology, studying the influence of psychological factors on the occurrence and flow of somatic (bodily) diseases. The brain and the nervous system of man, together with his external activity (cognition, communication, labor) produce mental properties that form the subject field of psychological science. The interaction of a person with a person in communities generates social properties - the subject domain of sociology.

Parametric, physical, chemical, biological, mental, social properties of a person are the subject area of ​​the relevant sciences (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, sociology). They can be attributed to the sciences of the first kind as generated by the natural laws of nature. These sciences can also be called fundamental in relation to others arising from the scientific analysis of the subject's practical activities, which are called applied sciences. On a special place are philosophy, philology, history. These sciences arise from the unique possibilities (functions) of a person's mental activity. Philosophy develops through intellectual reflection; philology - thanks to speech function; history - memory functions.

This classification indicates the place of psychological science among the first-born (fundamental) sciences. Such a vision of the psychic properties of a person should lead to a change in the concept of the status of psychological science in people's activities. This is the status, on the one hand, of the ubiquitous knowledge woven into the real processes of people's vital activity, on the other - an independent science that has a specific subject of knowledge: the psychic properties of man. The complexity of this subject is that we produce these properties from the material activity of man and are ideal as an invisible givenness of this activity, which does not allow us to come into direct contact with them, as is the case in the sciences that study the physical envelope of a person's psychological essence. The indirect conditions of psychological cognition of a person transform this process into a reflection of the objectified forms of existence of an ideal reality, the carrier of which is man as the subject of interaction with the world of things, people and himself.

The study of the forms of the objectification of the psychic properties of man has led to the formation of a full-fledged psychological science with all levels of integration of psychological knowledge in the form of academic, applied and practical psychology.

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